Aces and Aviators International Database WW1

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As Defence Journal describes it, at the outbreak of the First World War (WW1) in 1914, military aviation consisted of light wooden bi/tri planes with maximum speeds of under 100 mph and very limited load carrying capacity.

Their roles were initially restricted to reconnaissance and artillery observations.

While there may not have been any air power doctrine on the eve of WW1, there was no shortage of alarming speculations about strikes from the sky, thanks to pre-war novels from H.G Wells and others.

Within seven weeks of WW1 beginning, Sopwith Tabloids of Britain's Royal Naval Air Service conducted an air raid on the Zeppelin (airship) sheds in Germany. A year later Germany retaliated when Zeppelins in turn bombed English cities.

The actual damage in all these raids may have been minimal but the psychological impact on civilians and populations was profound.

With both sides using increasing numbers of aircraft for reconnaissance, artillery observations and occasional bombing raids, the inevitable happened and aircraft started to shoot at each other to prevent the adversary from taking military advantage of the new medium. This marked the birth of fighter aircraft whose numbers proliferated whilst their performance took a quantum leap. The battle for control of the air had truly begun. The writing was clearly on the wall for military tactics and precepts that had stood for hundreds of years as the full flower of air power's potential to change the course of events and even win wars had to be acknowledged.

The Air War assumed a giant scale on both sides. By way of example, the British had upwards of 2,000 planes active by war end. And the war saw many tactics and strategies develop that were further developed in the Second World War.

Recovering names and details from over 100 years ago is a big task. If you have additions or corrections, or know of places we can contact to request their data, please let us know via the Helpdesk.

Searching here is powerful. Check the Search Tips first. You can search on single items (a surname for example, or a country) and you can search on combinations: thus a search on 'Australia and Camel' will find all records where BOTH Australia and Camel are mentioned.

You can search on 2 characters or more

Searching is possible on French squadrons, but with some care. The French named their squadrons for the plane each flew, thus N95 was a squadron flying Nieuport, SPA 150 flew the SPAD. To search for squadron N95 search for 'Nieuport N95'. Squadrons flying the Caudron were designated C50 for example, so in this case search for 'Caudron C50'.

Be aware we have used dozens of different sources. Some use special characters (such as umluats on German), others use Anglicized versions of the word. Thus some use Göring, and some use Goering. Try different approaches.

Countries/Nationalities Included: Agentina, Australia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Bulgaria, Canada, Canada Newfoundland, Canada French Canada, Chile, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Germany Bavaria, Germany Sudetenland, Great Britain (Wales, Scotland, Ireland separately listed), Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, Slovakia, Hungary, Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Turkey Ottoman Empire, USA, Venezuela, Vietnam.

The reader is referred to a site of great scholarship on WWl aviation. is comprehensive and valuable.

Refer to Paul McGuiness RAAF Archive WW1
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You searched for: “Camel AND DFC

#Name* (↑)First NamesRankAwardsCountry (↑)AllianceRoleVictoriesDetailsUnitsAir ServiceDeathNotes/AircraftSourcesLinksPhoto
1 CobbyArthur HenryCaptDSO

DFC & 2 Bars

AustraliaAlliesPilot29[28+1] (5 balloons) (27 kills+2 Lost Control)71 Sqd RFC, 4 Sqd AFCRFC & AFC11/11/1955Camel ace, 1918. AFC best scorer. Born on 26 August 1894 in Melbourne Cobby worked as a bank clerk until he signed up with the AFC on 22 December 1916, thereafter serving with 4 and 71 Squadron on the Western Front.

Cobby later admitted to being so nervous about the prospect of going into battle that 'if anything could have been done by me to delay that hour, I would have left nothing undone to bring it about'. When he did see combat against the German Luftstreitkräfte for the first time, he had only twelve hours solo flying experience.

Cobby claimed an early victory, over a DFW reconnaissance plane, in February 1918, but this was credited only as 'driven down' and not confirmed. Based in the Pas-de-Calais area, No. 4 Squadron supported Allied forces during the German Spring Offensive that commenced the following month. Cobby's aerial opponents included members of Baron von Richthofen's 'Flying Circus'. On 21 March he shot down two of the formation's Albatros D.Vs, which were confirmed as his first official victories.

Having proved himself a talented and aggressive pilot, Cobby's leadership abilities were recognised with his appointment as a flight commander on 14 May 1918, and promotion to captain on 25 May. Described as 'an imp of mischief', he personalised his Sopwith Camel by fitting it with aluminium cutouts of comic actor Charlie Chaplin. Cobby again scored two kills in one day on 30 May near Estaires, when he destroyed an Albatros and an observation balloon, and repeated this feat the next day in the same area. He had been responsible for downing No. 4 Squadron's first balloon at Merville earlier in May; although vulnerable to attack with incendiary bullets, these large observation platforms, nicknamed Drachen (Dragons), were generally well protected by enemy fighters and anti-aircraft defences, and were thus considered a dangerous but valuable target. Cobby was recommended for the Military Cross on 3 June 1918 in recognition of his combat success and for being a 'bold and skilful Patrol Leader, who is setting a fine example to his Squadron. The award was changed to a Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC).

Cobby shot down three German aircraft on 28 June and was recommended for a bar to his DFC, highlighting his then-current tally of 15 victories. On 15 July 1918, he and another pilot dived on five Pfalz scouts near Armentières, Cobby accounting for two of the enemy aircraft and his companion for one. The Australians were then pursued by four Fokker Triplanes but managed to evade their attackers. This action earned Cobby a recommendation for a second bar to his DFC, the citation noting that he had scored 21 kills to date and had 'succeeded in destroying so many machines by hard work and by using his brains, as well as by courage and brilliant flying'. The two bars to his DFC were gazetted on the same day, 21 September. On 16 August, Cobby led a bombing raid against the German airfield at Haubourdin, near Lille, the largest aerial assault by Allied forces up until then, resulting in 37 enemy aircraft being destroyed. The following day he led a similar attack on Lomme airfield and was recommended for the Distinguished Service Order as a result. Gazetted on 2 November, the citation for the award declared that 'The success of these two raids was largely due to the determined and skilful leadership of this officer'.

Pfalz DX12

By the end of his active service, Cobby was in charge of Allied formations numbering up to 80 aircraft. Fellow No. 4 Squadron ace, George Jones (later Chief of the Air Staff), described him as the unit's 'natural leader in the air and in all off-duty activities'; his exploits made him a national hero. No. 4 Squadron was recognised as the most successful fighter squadron in France, accounting for as many as 220 victories. In September 1918, Cobby was transferred to a training unit in England, where he found the strain of instructing pupils 'much worse than flying in France'. He continued applying for a return to the front until the war ended in November, and was mentioned in despatches by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig the same month (gazetted 27 December). Though Cobby's final tally for the war is often given as 29 aircraft and 13 observation balloons destroyed, claim-by-claim analyses of his victories credit him with 24 aircraft and five balloons, for a grand total of 29, making him the highest-scoring member of the AFC, as well as the service's only 'balloon-busting' ace. His proudest boast, however, was that as a flight commander he never lost a pilot over enemy territory.
Citation DFC: 'HIS MAJESTY THE KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Distinguished Flying Cross on the undermentioned Officer of the Royal Air Force in recognition of acts of gallantry and distinguished service:- Lieutenant ARTHUR HENRY COBBY.'
Citation DFC Bar: London Gazette dated 21st September, 1918. 'HIS MAJESTY THE KING has been graciously pleased to confer a bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross on the undermentioned Officer of the Royal Air Force in recognition of gallantry in flying operations against the enemy:- Lieutenant (temporary Captain) ARTHUR HENRY COBBY, DFC.' An Officer whose success as a leader is due not only to high courage and brilliant flying but salsa to the clear judgment and presence of mind he invariably displays. His example is of great value to other pilots in his squadron. During recent operations he shot down five machines in eleven days, accounting for two in one day.'
Citation 2nd Bar DFC: 'One evening this Officer in company with another machine attacked five Pfaltz scouts, destroying two, one fell in flames and one broke up in the air. The Officer who accompanied him brought down a third machine out of control. While engaged in this combat they were attacked from above by five triplanes. Displaying cool judgment and brilliant flying Captain Cobby evaded this attack and returned to our lines in safety, both machines being undamaged. A determined and most skilful leader who has destroyed twenty one hostile machines or balloons, accounting for three machines and two balloons in four days.'
Citation DSO: 'HIS MAJESTY THE KING has been graciously pleased to confer the above award on the undermentioned Officer of the Royal Air Force in recognition of gallantry in Flying Operations against the Enemy:- Lieutenant (temporary Captain) ARTHUR HENRY COBBY, DFC. On the 16th August this Officer led an organised raid on an enemy aerodrome. At 200 feet altitude he obtained direct hits with his bombs and set on fire two hangars, he then opened fire on a machine which was standing out on the aerodrome. The machine caught fire. Afterwards he attacked with machine gun fire parties of troops and mechanics, inflicting a number of casualties. On the following day he led another important raid on an aerodrome, setting fire to two hangars and effectively bombing gun detachments, anti aircraft batteries, etc. The success of these two raids was largely due to the determined and skilful leadership of this Officer.'
Citation MiD: London Gazette dated 27th December, 1918. MENTIONED IN DESPATCHES 'The following is a continuation of SIR DOUGLS HAIG'S Despatch of the 8th November, 1918 submitting names deserving of special mention:- Lieutenant (temporary Captain) A. H. COBBY, DSO DFC'

2 CollishawRaymondMaj
Companion of the Order of the Bath

Distinguished Service Order (DSO) & Bar
Officer of the Order of the British Empire

Distinguished Service Cross (DSC)

Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC)

Mentioned in Despatches (4)

Order of St. Anna, 2nd Class with Swords (Russia)

Croix de Guerre (France)
CanadaAlliesPilot60 [56+4] (29 kills+31 Lost Control WWI) 3 Sqd (N), 10 Sqd (N), 13 Sqd (N), 203 Sqd, 47 Sqd RNAS & RAF 28 September 1976, West Vancouver, Canada Top Royal Naval Air Service ace, Triplane, Camel, 1917-18. Russia, 1919. Distinguished WW2 service. Raymond Collishaw, CB, DSO & Bar, OBE, DSC, DFC (22 November 1893 – 28 September 1976) was a distinguished Canadian fighter pilot, squadron leader, and commanding officer who served in the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) and later the Royal Air Force. He was the highest scoring RNAS flying ace and the second highest scoring Canadian pilot of the First World War. He was noted as a great leader in the air, leading many of his own formations into battle. As a member of the RAF during the Second World War, he commanded No. 204 Group (which later became the Desert Air Force) in North Africa.

Collishaw's first recorded victory came while he was flying escort on the Wing's first large-scale raid into Germany, on October 12th, 1916. The raid was against the Mauser Rifle Factory at Oberndorf, Germany. The bombers had nearly reached their target when they were attacked by six German Fokkers. Collishaw got into position to allow his observer to fire on one, and he evidently damaged it. Lt. Collishaw then turned, gained height, and fired a burst with the front gun. The Fokker dived out of control, and, according to the British crews, crashed to the ground, a total wreck. According to the German authorities, they lost no aircraft during the engagement, but it was not unheard of for combatants to attribute their losses to accident rather than enemy action.

Collishaw's next two victories were properly witnessed by thousands of French troops. He was ferrying a new aircraft from Wing Headquarters when six enemies dived out of the clouds and attacked him. It was six to one, and the Germans had the advantage of height. Collishaw, like Barker and McKeever, was happiest when close to the ground in such a spot. He went down. At tree-top level the advantage of numbers meant much less. In two quick bursts, he sent two Albatroses crashing into the trees, after which the others flew off. The flight so impressed the French that they awarded him the Croix de Guerre.

Collishaw scored 60 victories, consisting of 28 enemy aircraft destroyed (including one shared victory), 30 enemy aircraft driven down 'out of control' (including two shared wins), and one enemy aircraft 'driven down.'

At the commencement of the Second World War in 1939, Collishaw was promoted to Air Commodore and took over as Air Officer Commanding, No. 204 Group ("Egypt Group") in North Africa.[20] He concentrated on strategy and tactics to neutralize the Italian air force and to gain aerial superiority in North Africa. This was a tough challenge considering that his men were flying outdated Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters and Vickers Wellesley bombers. Soon after the war started Collishaw's men were off the mark quickly, striking at an Italian airbase destroying 18 aircraft within two days of the commencement of hostilities with only three aircraft losses. He then turned their efforts to bombing harbours, ships and troops to hold up the reinforcement of North Africa. They sunk the Italian cruiser San Giorgio and blew up an ammo dump.

His pilots were badly outnumbered and outgunned. But he countered these deficiencies with expert advice on aerial tactics, aggressive attacks and trickery. He had only a single modern Hawker Hurricane fighter to use at the front (three others were relegated to training) dubbed "Colly's Battleship". He made the best of it by constantly moving it from base to base and letting the Italians see it. He came up with the idea of making many, single plane attacks on Italian formations to fool the Italians into thinking he had many Hurricanes. The result was that the Italians spread their superior fighters thinly across North Africa, and seriously diluted their strength. ... Collishaw implemented a continual harassment procedure that forced the Italians into having standing patrols over their forts. This was incredibly wasteful of men, fuel and machines. They should have been on the offensive, and yet were not.
Shores (other sources 73; 0 Russia)

3 CompstonRobert John OrtonMaj
DSC and 2 Bars

Great BritainAlliesPilot25 [13+12] (8 kills+17 Lost Control) 8 Sqd (N), 40 SqdRNAS & RAF Triplane and Camel ace, 1917-18. Wing Commander Robert John Orton Compston DSC & 2 Bars DFC (9 January 1898 – 28 January 1962) was an English fighter pilot credited with 25 victories during World War I. He was one of only seven airman in this war who won three awards of the Distinguished Service Cross.

Robert John Orton Compston was born in Farnham, Surrey the son of Herbert Fuller Bright Compston, a clergyman, and his wife Rose Contance Compston (née Orton). He joined the Royal Naval Air Service in 1915 when he was 17 years old. He originally flew Home Defense missions, but was reassigned to 8 Naval Squadron when it went to France. He was a close friend of ace Robert Little.

Compston served in the Royal Air Force in the Second World War. On the 13 August 1940, while based at RAF Detling, the airfield came under attack by the Luftwaffe. It was the first major effort of the Germans during the Battle of Britain. Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive-bombers devastated the station and Squadron Leader Compston was wounded in action; one of 42 wounded and 24 killed. He retired from the RAFVR in 1954 with the rank of wing commander.

If Link Broken
Citation DSC: 12 May 1917 Flight Lieutenant Robert John Orton Compston, R.N.A.S. was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC): "For conspicuous skill and gallantry during the past nine months, in particular when attached to the Royal Flying Corps, when he had numerous engagements with enemy aircraft, and certainly destroyed one."
Citation DSC: 11 August 1917 Flight Commander Robert John Orton Compston, D.S.C., R.N.A.S. was awarded a bar to his Distinguished Servrtillery aeroplanes: "On the 12th June, 1917, with three other machines, he attacked six hostile scouts. He got close to one, and shot it down out of control. "On the 16th June, 1917, he attacked and brought down a two-seater Aviatik. "On the 3rd July, 1917, he attacked two Aviatiks, which he drove down and forced to land."
Citation DSC: On 16 March 1918 Flight Commander Robert John Orton Compston, D.S.C., R.N.A.S. was awarded a second bar to his Distinguished Service Cross (DSC): "For ability and determination when leading offensive patrols, in which he displays entire disregard of personal danger. "On the 1st January, 1918, he observed a new type twin-tailed two-seater enemy machine, which he attacked, firing a good many rounds at point blank range. The enemy machine dived, but was again attacked and went down vertically with his engine full on. The wings came off, and the machine was observed to crash. Later in the day Flt. Cdr. Compston observed two formations of ten and five Albatross scouts respectively. He attacked one of the enemy machines and sent it down in a flat spin and falling over sideways completely out of control. "On numerous other occasions Flt. Cdr. Compston has destroyed or driven down enemy machines completely out of control, and has frequently had more than one successful engagement in the same day."
Citation DFC: 3 June 1918 Captain Robert John Orton, DSC was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross on the occasion of the King's Birthday for Distinguished Service

4 EnstoneAlbert JamesCapt
Distinguished Service Order (DSO)

Distinguished Flying Cross

Distinguished Service Cross
Great BritainAlliesPilot15[13+2] (11 kills,4Lost Control,11 driven to ground) 4 Sqd (N), 204 SqdRNAS & RAFPup, Camel ace, 1917-18. English WWI fighter ace, Albert James 'Jim' Enstone was born 25/8 1895. Enstone joined the Royal Naval Air Service on 3 April 1916 with the rank of temporary probationary flight sub-lieutenant. He learned to fly at Cranwell; seems to have showed early promise, as he was appointed as an acting flight commander during training. He graduated on 15 September 1916 with Royal Aero Club certificate 3677.

Enstone was confirmed in his rank as flight sub-lieutenant on 8 November 1916; he had already been appointed an acting flight lieutenant as early as 10 April 1916. He was one of the founding members of 4 Naval Squadron in April 1917; it was stationed at Bray Dunes on the Franco-Belgian border, and was tasked with both flying offensive patrols and escorting RNAS bombing missions. He used a Sopwith Pup (below) to counter German probes over the English Channel.

Sopwith Pup

Enstone destroyed four enemy aircraft near or over the English Channel between 9 May and 5 June 1917, including one kill shared with Arnold Jacques Chadwick. His second victory, scored on 9 May, forecast his later citation for valour; Naval 4 battled a large opposing force of German Albatroses for 25 minutes, with Alexander MacDonald Shook and Langley Frank Willard Smith joining Enstone in victory. After he and his squadron upgraded to Sopwith Camels, Enstone used his new mount to down three more German aircraft in July 1917, including an effort against a seaplane teamed with Chadwick and Ronald M. Keirstead.

The new ace would go on to push his victory total to 10 for 1917. Between his ninth and tenth wins, on 1 October 1917, Enstone was promoted from temporary flight sub-lieutenant to temporary flight lieutenant. He also won the Distinguished Service Cross during this string of victories. Enstone continued to win throughout the first half of 1918. When the RNAS was consolidated into the Royal Air Force on 1 April 1918, his position as flight commander automatically gained him the rank of captain. In August 1918, he was relieved of combat duty and returned to Home Establishment in England. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross during this period.
Citation DSC: Flight Commander Alexander MacDonald Shook RNAS Flight Lieutenant Arnold Jacques Chadwick RNAS (since reported drowned) Flight Sub-Lieutenant Albert James Enstone, R.N.A.S. Flight Sub-Lieutenant Langley Frank Willard Smith RNAS (since reported missing) For exceptional gallantry and remarkable skill and courage whilst serving with the RNAS at Dunkirk during May and June, 1917, in repeatedly attacking and destroying hostile aircraft.
Citation DFC: Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) Capt. Albert James Enstone, DSC (Sea Patrol). Has been engaged for eighteen months on active service flying (ten months as Flight Leader). Has destroyed twelve hostile machines and brought down six more out of control. During the past month Capt. Enstone attacked an enemy gun, which was firing on one of our crashed machines, and succeeded in blowing up the ammunition dump alongside the gun, causing a great explosion, with flames reaching to a height of nearly 300 feet.
Shores (Other sources 18 victories)

5 HickeyCharles Robert ReeveCapt
DFC and Bar
CanadaAlliesPilot21 [17+4] (11 kills+10 Lost Control) RNAS 4 Sqd; RAF 204 SqdRAF03/10/1918 Camel ace, 1917-18. KIFA. The son of Major Robert H. F. and Charlotte E. Hickey, brother of Jennett and Elsie. He was a farmer and single. He served with the 11th Canadian Mounted Rifles before he transferred to the RNAS. Posted to 4 Naval Squadron in August 1917. A Sopwith Camel pilot, he scored 4 victories before the RAF was formed on 1 April 1918. On 21 April 1918, he forced down a Rumpler C near Wulpen and after landing beside it, was attempting to protect his prize from Belgian citizens when the German aircraft exploded killing several bystanders and injuring Hickey. A month later, he was back in action, scoring twelve more victories before he was killed in a mid-air collision with another Sopwith Camel.
Citation: DFC
'Lt. Charles Robert Reeves Hickey. Has been engaged in numerous air battles with marked success during a period of twelve months. On a recent occasion he flew to the assistance of one of our machines which was being pressed by two enemy machines and succeeded in destroying one of them.'
Citation: DFC Bar Bar
'Lieut. (T./Capt.) Charles Robert Reeves Hickey, DFC Sea Patrol (Can. Mtd. Rif.). A very determined air fighter who has destroyed seven enemy machines and brought down nine completely out of control during the past three months. His skill and initiative as a flight commander have made his flight very successful. Last month he destroyed two machines and brought down two more out of control in one day, and the remainder of his flight, at the same time succeeded in disposing of several more enemy aircraft without sustaining any casualties.' (Photo courtesy Vancouver Island Military Museum Society)

6 JordanWilliam LancelotCapt
DSC and Bar

Great BritainAlliesPilot39 [20+19] (11 kills+28 Lost Control) 8Sqd RNAS, 208 Sqd RAFRAFSouth African. Camel ace, 1917-18.
Citation DSC: Flt. Sub-Lieut. William Lancelot Jordan, RNAS In recognition of the courage and initiative displayed by him in aerial combats. On the 13th July, 1917, in company with another pilot, he attacked an enemy two-seater machine. After bursts of fire from both of our machines, the enemy observer was seen to collapse in the cockpit, and the enemy aircraft was last seen disappearing among some houses. On the 6th December, 1917, whilst patrolling at 15,000 feet, he saw a two-seater enemy aircraft at 10,500 feet, and dived on him, firing about thirty rounds. After falling over to the left, enemy aircraft went down vertically. He has also been instrumental in bringing down other enemy machines.
Citation: DSC Bar. Flt. Lieut. William Lancelot Jordan, DSC, RNAS. For skill and determination when leading offensive patrols. On the 6th January, 1918, when on offensive patrol he observed ten Albatross scouts. The enemy dived and spread out, and Flt. Lieut. Jordan, in conjunction with another pilot, attacked one, into which he fired at close range, sending it down in a side-slipping dive.
Citation: DFC Lieut. (Hon. Capt.) William Lancelot Jordan, DSC. (late RNAS). A brilliant and most gallant leader who has already been awarded the DSC. and Bar for distinguished services and devotion to duty. He has led numerous offensive patrols into action, displaying at all times marked ability, determination and dash. He is an ideal Squadron Commander who has personally accounted for twenty-five enemy machines.

7 KingElwin Roy 'Bow'CaptDSO


AustraliaAlliesPilot26[23+3] (4 balloons)(20 kills+6 Lost Control)4 SqdAustralian Flying Corps28 November 1941King joined 4 Squadron of the Australian Flying Corps. He scored some 22 of his 26 victories in the final seven months of the war alone. Seven of these were achieved while flying the Sopwith Snipe, making him the highest scoring pilot to use the aircraft. Won DFC September 1918 and mentioned in despatches

No. 4 Squadron was operating its Sopwith Camels in hazardous, low-altitude support of Australian ground troops when King arrived in France, and he had little opportunity for air-to-air combat. The burly 6-foot-5-inch (196 cm) King—nicknamed "Bo", "Beau", or "Bow"—also had problems landing the Camel; crammed into its small cockpit, his large frame impeded control stick movement. The resulting rough landings annoyed his commanding officer, Major Wilfred McCloughry, brother of ace Edgar McCloughry.

On 16 August 1918, King participated in a major assault against the German airfield at Haubourdin, near Lille, that resulted in thirty-seven enemy aircraft being destroyed on the ground. During the action, described by the official history as a "riot of destruction", King set on fire a hangar housing four or five German planes. He also, according to No. 2 Squadron pilot Charles Copp, flew down Haubourdin's main street, waving as he went, his reason being that "the girls in that village must have had a heck of a time with all that bombing and must have been terribly scared so I thought I'd cheer them up a bit".

During October 1918, King converted with the rest of No. 4 Squadron to the upgraded Sopwith Snipe, whose larger cockpit was a better fit for him. He scored with the Snipe on both 28 and 29 October, the latter over Tournai, in what is frequently described as "one of the greatest air battles of the war". At Tournai, amid a confrontation involving over seventy-five Allied and German fighters, King evaded five enemy Fokkers that dived on him, before destroying an LVG in a head-on attack. His tally of seven victories with the Snipe in the closing days of the war made him the highest-scoring pilot in this type.

Archive Report

8 KingCecil FrederickCapt
Military Cross


Croix de Guerre
Great BritainAlliesPilot22 [15+7] (10 kills+12 Lost Control) 43 SqdRFC & RAF24/01/1919 Camel ace, 1917-18, Snipe. KIFA. Capt. CECIL FREDERICK KING, M.C., D.F.C., Croix de Guerre (avec Palme), RAF, son of Mr. and Mrs. F . H. King, Springfield Dukes, Chelmsford, was killed, the result of a collision in the air at Sedgeford, Norfolk, on January 24th, aged 19 years 11 months. He was educated at Verites, Charterhouse. On leaving school early in 1917 he joined the Royal Flying Corps, and in September of that year went to France, where he served continuously for thirteen months as flying officer and flight commander. He shot down 22 enemy machines, 19 of which were officially confirmed. He also did fine work in attacking enemy troops at low altitudes with his machine-guns and bombs. The French decoration was awarded to him for services rendered to the French Army during the second battle of the Marne, July, 1918. Capt. C. F. King was recently transferred to Sedgeford as a fighting instructor. The funeral took place at Docking (near Sedgeford) on February 4, with full RAF honours.(Flight Magazine 1919)
Citation: Military Cross
T./2nd Lt. Cecil Frederick King, Gen. List and R.F.C. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On five occasions during a period of three months he has sent down four enemy machines completely out of control, and has destroyed one other. Later, under very adverse weather conditions he carried out a low reconnaissance, during which he engaged troops in a station, causing several casualties, fired into a body of the enemy entering a village from a height of 50 feet, attacked four gun limbers, causing the teams to stampede, and finally dived on to a parade of troops, who scattered in all directions. He has displayed exceptional daring and skill, which, combined with a splendid dash and initiative, have set a fine example to his squadron.
Citation: DFC
2nd Lt. (temp. Capt.) Cecil Frederick King, M.C. He is a fine leader who at all times shows great gallantry and skill in manoeuvring; his energy and keenness have brought his flight to a high standard of efficiency. He frequently descends to low altitudes to obtain good results from bombing, and shooting, and on several occasions he has brought down enemy aeroplanes.
Shores (Other sources 20 victories)
9 Maye (name is May. See explanation in Search Tips) Wilfred Reid 'Wop'Capt

CanadaAlliesPilot13 [10+3] (9 kills+4 Lost Control) 209 SqdRAF1952-06-21 Camel ace, 1918. OBE DFC (Born 1896-03-20), was a Canadian flying ace in the First World War and a leading post-war aviator. He was the final Allied pilot to be pursued by Manfred von Richthofen before the German ace was shot down on the Western Front in 1918. After the war, May returned to Canada, pioneering the role of a bush pilot while working for Canadian Airways in Northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories. Went on to become one of the most famous Canadian aviation pioneers and bush pilots, noted for his innovative mind and great perseverance in the face of adversity. Shores. Wikipedia

10 McCloughry (later Kingston-McCloughry)Edgar James KingstonCaptDSO

DFC & Bar

AustraliaAlliesPilot21(4 balloons)(20 kills+1 Lost Control)23 Sqd RFC; 4 Sqd AFC (CO)RFC & AFC15 November 1972Camel ace, 1918. Australian WWI fighter ace, Edgar James Kingston McCloughry was born 10/9 1896. He authored 2 books: Direction of War A Critique of the Political Direction and High Command in War; E.J. Kingston McCloughry / Hardcover / New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1958 Defense Policy and Strategy E.J. Kingston McCloughry / Hardcover / New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1960 More:
Citation DFC: Lieut. (T./Capt.) Edgar James McClaughry (Australian Flying Corps). Early one morning this officer left the ground, and, meeting an enemy two-seater ten miles over the lines, he engaged and destroyed it. He was immediately attacked by five scouts; these he out-manoeuvred, destroying one and driving the remainder down. He is a determined and successful scout leader, who in recent operations has accounted for nine enemy machines, in addition to three others and one balloon when serving with another squadron.
Citation DFC Bar: Lt. (T./Capt.) Edgar James McClaughry, D.F.C. (Australian Flying Corps). In the short space of one month this officer has destroyed ten enemy aeroplanes and balloons. He has organised and carried out numerous raids on the enemy, frequently at very low altitudes. Altogether he has destroyed fifteen aeroplanes and four balloons. Early one morning he crossed our lines to attack a balloon which he had previously located. As soon as daylight allowed he dived and opened fire on the balloon, which was on the ground, descending to within fifty feet of it. The balloon burst into flames. He then attacked some horse transport, dropping bombs and firing, some 300 rounds at 1,500 feet altitude.
Citation DSO: Capt. Edgar James McClaughry, D.F.C. (Australian F.C.). (FRANCE) A bold and fearless officer, who has performed many gallant deeds of daring, notably on 24th September, when, attacking a train at 250 feet altitude, he obtained a direct hit, cutting it in two, the rear portion being derailed. He then fired a number of rounds at the fore portion, which pulled up. Sighting a hostile two-seater he engaged it and drove it down. Proceeding home he observed seven Fokker biplanes; although he had expended the greater part of his ammunition, Captain McClaughry never hesitated, but engaged the leader. During the combat that ensued he was severely wounded by fire from a scout that attacked him from behind; turning, he drove this machine off badly damaged. His ammunition being now expended he endeavoured to drive off two hostile scouts by firing Very lights at them. Exhausted by his exertions, he temporarily lost consciousness, but recovered sufficiently to land his machine safely. This officer has destroyed fourteen machines and four balloons, and has repeatedly displayed an utter disregard for danger in attacking ground targets.

Later changed name to Kingston-McCloughry. Brother of Wilfred Ashton McCloughry who changed his name to McClaughry
Shores (Other sources 23)

11 McEwenClifford MackayLt
Military Cross

DFC and Bar

Medal Military Valour
CanadaAlliesPilot27 [25+2] (23 kills+4 Lost Control) 28 SqdRAFCamel ace, Italy, 1917-18. RCAF WWII. Clifford MacKay McEwen (aka 'Black Mike') was born on 2 July 1896 in Griswold, Manitoba and grew up in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. Air Vice Marshal Clifford Mackay McEwen CB, MC, DFC & Bar (2 July 1896 – 6 August 1967) was a fighter ace in the British Royal Flying Corps during World War I and a senior commander in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II. His Second World War service culminated in his commanding No. 6 Group RCAF in England from 28 February 1944 to 13 July 1945.

In 1918 McEwen revealed to be a true ‘ace’ in the Italian air war. Within ten months he succeeded to down 27 enemy aircraft. He was awarded therefore the Military Cross, the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) and the DFC-with-Bar. McEwen was described as 'A brilliant and courageous pilot who has personally destroyed twenty enemy machines. Exhibiting entire disregard of personal danger, he never hesitates to engage the enemy, however superior in numbers, and never fails to inflict serious casualties. His fine fighter spirit and skillful leadership inspired all who served with him.' At the end of the First World War McEwen was promoted to the rank of Captain.
12 RochfordLeonard Henry 'Titch'Capt
DSC and Bar

DFC and Bar
Great BritainAlliesPilot29 [17+12] (13 kills+16 Lost Control) 3 Sq (N), 203 SqdRNAS & RAF17 December 1986 Pup, Camel ace, 1917-18. Leonard Henry ('Tich') Rochford DSC & Bar, DFC (10 November 1896 – 17 December 1986) was a British World War I Flying Ace with 29 credited victories, consisting of 13 destroyed enemy craft (including 7 shared), and 16 driven down out of control (including 5 shared). Shores
13 RosevearStanley WallaceCapt
DSC and Bar

CanadaAlliesPilot25 [23+2] (17 kills+8 Lost Control) RNAS 1 Sqd (N), RAF 201 SqdRNAS & RAF25/04/1918 Triplane and Camel ace, 1917-18. KIFA.
Citation: DSC
'Flt. Sub-Lieut. Stanley Wallace Rosevear, RNAS For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He has destroyed several hostile machines, and has also attacked and scattered parties of enemy infantry from low altitudes, on one occasion from a height of only 100 feet.'
Citation: DSC Bar
'Flt. Lieut. Stanley Wallace Rosevear, DSC., RNAS. For the skill and gallantry displayed by him on the 15th March, 1918, when he attacked a formation of eight enemy aircraft, destroying two of the enemy machines. This officer has destroyed numerous enemy machines and is a very skilful and dashing fighting pilot.'
14 ThomsonGeorge EdwinCapt

Military Cross

Great Britain ScotlandAlliesPilot21 [17+4] (6 kills+15 Lost Control) 46 SqdRFC23/05/1918 Pup, 1917; Camel ace, 1918. KIFA. Thomson was seriously injured during flight training; the accident left him with lasting scars to his face. Nevertheless, he joined 46 Squadron during the summer of 1917, to fly a Sopwith Pup. On 25 September 1917, he scored his first victory flying Pup no. B2196, destroying an enemy reconnaissance plane. Thomson successfully used seven different Camels in his campaign of aerial victories. On 30 November 1917, Thomson used Camel no. B3514 to destroy an Albatros D.V and capture a Pfalz D.III. On 10 December, he drove down another D.V out of control, using Camel no. B2451. He would not score again until 18 January 1918, when he drove another two-seater down out of control, still using B2451. In February, he would use Camel B9131 to drive down an Albatros two-seater. Then came March. He used four different Camels and reeled off fifteen victories within the month, including four on the 16th, three on the 23rd, and two on the 17th. The three on the 23rd brought his total to 21. His tally included five enemy planes destroyed; he shared one of these triumphs with fellow ace Sydney Smith. He also drove down fifteen enemy planes out of control; one of these victories was also shared with Smith, and another with Horace Debenham. The remaining win was the captured Pfalz.
Citatiion MC: Military Cross (MC) T./Capt. George Edwin Thomson, Gen. List and RFC. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On one occasion, when testing his machine, he observed a hostile two-seater machine between himself and the lines. He dived on it and fired sixty rounds at a close range, rendering the observer insensible. He then pulled up under the tail of the enemy machine, fired another thirty rounds, and observed it going down in a slow spin. He has accounted for six enemy machines, and has rendered continuous gallant and valuable service.
Citation: DSO Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Lt. (T./Capt.) George Edwin Thomson, MC Gen. List, and RFC. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On one occasion, encountering a number of enemy two-seater planes, he dived on one of these and sent it down in flames. On returning to our lines, he dived on to another enemy machine, the observer of which was seen to collapse in his cockpit, the hostile machine going down completely out of control. On the following day, observing a hostile two-seater machine, he dived on it, engaging it at 100 yards range. On the hostile plane going down in a slow spin, he followed it to within 2,500 feet, but was compelled to withdraw owing to heavy machine-gun fire from the ground. He has, in all, accounted for twenty-one enemy machines, and has at all times during recent operations displayed the most marked skill and gallantry.
Shores (Other Sources 14)

15 WallaceHazel LeRoyCaptGreat BritainAlliesPilot14 [6+8] (1 balloon)(5 kills+9 Lost Control) 9 Sqd (N), 1 Sqd (N), 201 Sqd, 3 Sqd RNAS & RAF Camel ace, 1917-18. Captain Hazel LeRoy Wallace DFC (13 November 1897 –22 March 1976) was a Canadian First World War flying ace, officially credited with 14 victories. His record shows him to have been a notable team player in squadron tactics.

Wallace originally served with 9 Squadron RNAS in 1917 as a Sopwith Camel pilot. He won his first dogfights there, sharing victories on 6 and 16 September 1917 with Joseph Stewart Temple Fall and several other pilots. He then transferred to 1 Squadron RNAS in early 1918. On 11 March 1918, he scored a solo victory, driving an Albatros D.V down out of control. Five days later, he shared a win with Maxwell Findlay. Wallace would not score again until 2 May, when he, Reginald Brading, Samuel Kinkead, and several other British pilots sent a hapless German observation plane down out of control; Wallace thus became an ace.

Albatross DV

His next triumph on the morning of 15 May was more of the same, as Wallace, Findlay, Kinkead, Brading, Charles Dawson Booker, Robert McLaughlin, and three other British pilots pounced upon and destroyed an Albatros D.V. A solo 'out of control' win on the afternoon patrol for the 15th, and another the next day put Wallace's tally at eight.

He then transferred to 3 Squadron as the C Flight Commander. On 20 July 1918, he and Adrian Franklyn drove a Hannover two-seater observation plane down out of control. He continued to score with his new unit–mostly solo victories, but with one win shared with George R. Riley–bringing his total to thirteen by 21 August. The next day, he became a balloon buster, teaming with Riley to bring down a German observation balloon. Though he scored no further victories, his Distinguished Flying Cross was awarded on 2 November 1918.
Citation DFC: Lieut. (T./Capt.) Hazel Le Roy Wallace. A gallant and most capable leader, who in many engagements has displayed marked ability and courage, notably in a recent attack on an aerodrome when he led his flight against the group of hangars allotted to him at an altitude of between 100 and 200 feet. By direct hits he destroyed three enemy aeroplanes and set fire to a hangar by machine-gun fire. In addition to above this officer has destroyed four aeroplanes and driven three down out of control.
16 WhealyArthur TreloarCapt
DSC and Bar

CanadaAlliesPilot27[21+6] (17 kills+10 Lost Control) 3 Sqd, 9 Sqd RNAS, 203 Sqd RAFRNAS & RAF Pup, Triplane, Camel ace, 1917-18. Whealy was commissioned on 29 February 1916. On 24 August 1916 that he was posted to 3 Wing. He served with both 3 Naval Squadron and 9 Naval Squadron within that wing. He did not achieve his first victory until 12 April 1917. He flew his Sopwith Pup to three victories as a pilot of 3 Squadron. Then, on 9 May, he scored for the first time with 9 Squadron; he was still flying a Pup. He became an ace on 7 July. 9 Naval re-equipped with Sopwith Triplanes. Whealy first scored with his new aircraft on 29 July 1917, knocking one Albatros D.V down out of control and destroying another one in flames within the hour. He then switched to the Sopwith Camel back in 3 Naval. He scored once more in 1917, on 5 September, sending another D.V down without certifying its destruction. After a five month lapse, Whealy achieved his ninth credited victory on 17 February 1918. He followed that up with five claims in March, including the capture of an Albatross D.V. He added three further victories in April, six in May, and a single tally in June, on the 7th, running his total to 24. After a six-week lull, he scored his final three victories within two weeks, on 22 and 27 August, and on 4 September. His final record comprised 9 enemy airplanes destroyed by himself, three destroyed in conjunction with other pilots, ten down out of control by himself, two shared out of control victories, and one enemy plane captured.
Citation: DSC 'Flt. Lieut. Arthur Treloar Whealy, RNAS For the most consistent determination, bravery and skill with which he has carried out numerous low flying harassing attacks on the enemy's troops, transports, etc., inflicting heavy casualties and damage. By his splendid example and gallantry a great many hostile .operations were hampered and frustrated. He has further brought down many enemy machines.'
Citation DSC Bar. 'Lieut. (Hon. Capt.) Arthur Treloar Whealy, DSC, RAF For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He has proved himself to be a brilliant fighting pilot. Under his able and determined leadership his flight has engaged and accounted for many enemy machines, he himself being personally responsible for many of these.'
Citation DFC: 'Lieut. (A./Capt.) Arthur Treloar Whealey, DSC (FRANCE) This officer has shown a very high standard of efficiency. Untiring, and full of initiative, he sets a fine example to the younger pilots. During the recent advance he has carried out daring reconnaissances at very low altitudes, invariably bringing back valuable information. He is a bold fighter in the air, having accounted for five enemy machines.'

17 WhistlerHarold Alfred 'Willy'Capt

DFC and 2 Bars
Great BritainAlliesPilot23 (1 balloon)(14 kills+9 Lost Control) 3 Sqd, 80 SqdRFC & RAF Camel ace, 1918. Upon passing out from Sandhurst, Whistler was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Dorsetshire Regiment on 19 July 1916. He subsequently transferred to the Royal Flying Corps to be trained as a pilot, and was seconded to the RFC on 29 September with the appointment of flying officer. He was soon on operations and was wounded in action on 29 January 1917 when he was with 3 Squadron RFC. When he recovered he joined 80 Squadron RFC. He was promoted to the temporary rank of lieutenant (while serving with the RFC) on 1 August 1917, and was appointed a flight commander on 27 August, flying the Sopwith Camel. Promoted to the permanent rank of lieutenant on 19 January 1918, he returned to operations in France that year. He was credited with 23 victories ( 1 balloon, 13 destroyed, 9 'out of control') between March 1918 and October 1918, all while flying the Sopwith Camel.
Citation DFC: 3 August 1918 'A very courageous and enterprising patrol leader, who has rendered valuable services. He has done exceptionally good work in attacking ground targets, which he engages at very low altitudes. During the past month his patrol attacked eight enemy scouts who were flying above him. He attacked a triplane and brought it down in a crash, and whilst thus himself engaged another of his pilots destroyed a second enemy machine. The remainder of the enemy formation were then driven off.'
Citation DSO 2 November 1918 Capt. Alfred Harold Whistler, DFC. (Dorset Regt.) is appointed a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order. 'During recent operations this officer has rendered exceptionally brilliant service in attacking enemy aircraft and troops on the ground. On 9 August he dropped four bombs on a hostile battery, engaged and threw into confusion a body of troops, and drove down a hostile balloon, returning to his aerodrome after a patrol of one and a half hours duration with a most valuable report. He has in all destroyed ten aircraft and driven down five others out of control.'
Citation DFC Bar: 8 February 1919 Capt. Alfred Harold Whistler, DSO, is awarded a bar to the DFC 'This officer has twenty-two enemy machines and one balloon to his credit. He distinguished himself greatly on 29 September, when he destroyed two machines in one combat, and on 15 September, when, following two balloons to within twenty feet of the ground, he destroyed one and caused the observer of the second to jump out and crash. He has, in addition, done arduous and valuable service in bombing enemy objectives and obtaining information. Captain Whistler is a gallant officer of fine judgment and power of leadership.'
Citation DFC Second Bar: 15 March 1929 Awarded a Second Bar to the DFC 'In recognition of gallant and distinguished services rendered in connection with the operations against the Akhwan in the Southern Desert, Iraq, during the period November 1927 – May 1928.'

18 WhiteJoseph Leonard MariesCapt
DFC and Bar

Belgium Croix de Guerre

Medal for Military Valour
CanadaAlliesPilot22 [20+2] (12 kills+10 Lost Control) 65 SqdRAF1925-02-24
Camel ace, 1918. KIFA.
Citation: DFC 'Lt. Joseph Leonard Maries White (late Canadian Machine Gun Corps). This officer is distinguished for his bravery and dash in action, never hesitating to attack, regardless of the enemy's numerical superiority. He has destroyed three enemy aircraft and driven down two out of control. In addition he has carried out most valuable reconnaissance service at low altitudes.'
Citation: DFC - Bar 'Lt. (T./Capt.) Joseph Leonard Maries White, DFC (Can. M.G.C.). In company with another pilot this officer recently attacked a hostile formation of fourteen scouts. One of these he shot down in flames, and a second out of control. Captain White not only displays courage and skill of a high order in attacking machines in the air and troops on the ground, but he has rendered excellent service on reconnaissance duty, obtaining most valuable information.' (Photo courtesy François Dutil)
Shores (Other sources 31)

19 HayneEdwin Tufnell

South AfricaAlliesPilot153 Sqd, 203 SqdRNAS28 April 1919 South African WWI fighter ace, Edwin Tufnell Hayne was born 28/5 1895. A Sopwith Camel pilot, Edwin Tufnell Hayne joined the Royal Naval Air Service in 1916. Posted to 3 Naval Squadron (later 203 Squadron) in 1917, he scored his first victory in August, shooting down an Albatros D.V south of Middelkerke. In 1919, Hayne was killed in a crash while flying a Bristol Fighter. Living in Johannesburg, South Africa, before the war; attended King Edward VII School, at Johannesburg.
Citation DSC: Flt. Sub-Lieut, (now Flt. Lieut.) Edwin Tufnell Hayne, RNAS In recognition of his services with a Wing of the RNAS at Dunkirk between March and September, 1917. He has had numerous engagements with enemy aircraft and on the 16th August, 1917, attacked an enemy aerodrome and placed a whole flight of machines out of action by machine-gun fire. During a flight of over two hours, during which time he attacked transport and railways, he never exceeded a height of 1,000 feet.
Citation DFC: Lieut. (Hon. Capt.) Edwin Tufnell Hayne, DSC (late RNAS.). During the recent enemy offensive this officer carried out forty-eight special missions. Flying at extremely low altitudes he has inflicted heavy casualties on massed troops and transport. In addition he has accounted for ten enemy machines, destroying three and driving down seven out of control; in these encounters he has never hesitated to engage the enemy, however superior in numbers. On one occasion he observed ten hostile aeroplanes harassing three Dolphines; he attacked three of the enemy, driving one down in flames.

20 McCloughry (later McClaughry)Wilfred AshtonDSO



MiD (x3)

AustraliaAlliesPilot34 SqdAustralian Flying Corps1943Wilfred Ashton McCloughry (1894-1943) and Edgar James McCloughry (1896-1972), airmen, were the first and second sons of James Kingston McCloughry from Larne, Northern Ireland, and his Australian-born wife Charlotte Rebecca Ashton. Wilfred was born on 26 November 1894 at Knightsbridge, Adelaide, and Edgar on 10 September 1896 at Hindmarsh. Wilfred later changed his surname to McClaughry and Edgar became Kingston-McCloughry. Wilfred was educated at Queen's School, North Adelaide, University of Adelaide and the Adelaide School of Mines. Commissioned into the Australian Military Forces in 1913, he transferred to the Australian Imperial Force in 1914 and went overseas with the 9th Light Horse Regiment. On Gallipoli from May to August 1915 he was wounded twice. Seconded to the Royal Flying Corps in March 1916, after flying training he served in a home defence squadron operating against German airships. He joined No.100 Squadron, the R.F.C.'s first night bomber unit, on its formation and in March 1917 accompanied it to France as a flight commander. He was awarded the Military Cross in July. One of the experienced Australians in the R.F.C. selected to strengthen the expanding Australian Flying Corps, Wilfred joined the Second Squadron and accompanied it to France as a flight commander in September 1917. In October he was recalled to England to command the Fourth Squadron and took that overseas in December. Quiet but firm, he led one of the most efficient Sopwith Camel squadrons on the Western Front in 1918. He flew frequent daylight missions and undertook several risky night sorties against enemy heavy bombers in Camels not equipped for night flying. Credited with three victories, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Distinguished Service Order and was mentioned in dispatches three times.

During the battle of Britain Wilfred commanded No.9 Fighter Group and in 1942, appointed C.B. and air vice marshal, became Air Officer Commanding, Egypt. Died Accidental (air crash), Heliopolis, Egypt, 4 January 1943, aged 48 years. Buried Heliopolis War Cemetery


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