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Archive Report: US Forces
1941 - 1945

Compiled from official National Archive and Service sources, contemporary press reports, personal logbooks, diaries and correspondence, reference books, other sources, and interviews.

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8th Air Force
27.09.1944 700th Bombardment Squadron (H) B-24H 42-110022 ‘Patches’ 1st Lt. Raphael E. Carrow

Operation: Henschel industrial plants Kassel (Mission #650), Germany

Date: 27th September 1944 (Wednesday)

Unit No: 700th Bombardment Squadron (H), 445th Bombardment Group (H), 45th Bombardment Group (H), 2nd Air Division, 8th Air Force

Type: B-24H Patches

Serial No: 42-110022

Code: RN:F+

Location: Iba, Germany

Base: Tibenham airfield (Station #124), Norfolk, England

Pilot: 1st Lt. Raphael Edwin Carrow O-812546 AAF Age 25. PoW *

Co-Pilot: 2nd Lt. Newell White Brainard O-812929 AAF Age 24. Murdered (1)

Navigator: 2nd Lt. George Rolla Austin O-716698 AAF Age 23. KiA

Radio/Op: T/Sgt. Roy A. Belouski 36440654 AAF Age 32. KiA

Engineer: T/Sgt. Louis T. Tocket 35216173 AAF Age 24. KiA

Nose Gunner: S/Sgt. Victor J. Panconi 39099421 AAF Age 23. KiA

Right Waist Gnr: S/Sgt. Charles William Loether 33420032 AAF Age 21. PoW **

Left Waist Gnr: S/Sgt. Nicholas Henry Dengler 37622981 AAF Age 27. PoW **

Tail Gnr: S/Sgt. Herbert Arthur Ledin 31351923 AAF Age 19. PoW **

Originally the B-24 had 10 crew positions. Crew complements evolved during the war and generally comprised 9 personnel who were typically, but not always, Pilot, Co-Pilot, Bombardier, Navigator, Flight Engineer/Top Turret Gunner, Radio Operator/Waist Gunner, Nose Gunner, Ball Turret Gunner, Waist Gunner, Tail Gunner.

The Ball Turret was being removed from July 1944 as an operational decision to reduce weight and the improve manoeuvrability of the aircraft.

* Stalag Luft 1 Barth-Vogelsang, today situated in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

** Stalag Luft 4 Gross-Tychow, Pomerania, Prussia now Tychowo, Poland (Moved from Stalag Luft 6 Heydekrug. Moved to Wöbbelin near Ludwigslust and then to Usedom near Swinemünde).


The aircraft took off from Tibenham on the 27th September 1944 as part of the 445th BG mission to bomb the Henschel facility in Kassel, Germany. Because of an error in navigation the 445th BG became detached from the main stream and the fighter escort and proceeded north of Kassel to bomb the western edge of the town of Göttingen, some 40 km (25 mls) north-east of Kassel.

After leaving the target area, the 445th BG was attacked by an estimated 150 enemy aircraft comprising Fw190 and Bf109 fighters. In a period of less than 6 mins, 25 of the 35 B-24's had gone down in flames. The exact circumstance of the shooting down of Patches is not known, however, five of the Patches crew managed to bail out before the aircraft exploded in mid-air. The wreckage fell to earth just north of Iba village some 30 km (18½ mls) west of Eisenach.

S/Sgt. Ledin was captured in woods 3 days later, together with an unknown gunner from the 703rd Bomber Squadron. It was established that three of the other four who had successfully bailed out were captured and became PoWs for the remainder of the war.

The 703rd lost five aircraft on this mission and numerous gunners were captured but it has not been possible to identify the unknown airman captured with S/Sgt. Ledin.

(1) Amongst the numerous aircraft and crews lost on this mission the circumstances of the deaths of five American airmen from three different B-24s were unknown. The airmen in question were 2nd Lt. Brainard from Patches, 2nd Lt. John W. Cowgill, 2nd Lt. Hector Victor Scala and T/Sgt. James T. Fields from B-24H 42-50383 King Kong, and T/Sgt. John Joseph Donahue from B-24H 41-29579 Clay Pidgeon.

To determine the circumstances of the deaths of the five airmen three separate courts were convened. What the courts did not or could not determine was which of the five airmen were captured at which location and who was murdered by whom.

Case No. 012-1915

The first General Military Government court was convened at Dachau, Germany from the 28th August to the 3rd September 1946 at which a total of seven German civilians were charged on two counts.

All seven of the accused were charged in that they did, at or near Nentershausen, Germany, on or about the 27th September 1944, wilfully, deliberately and wrongfully encourage, aid, abet and participate in the killing, and six of the seven in the assault, of an unknown member of the United States Army, who was then an unarmed surrendered PoW in the custody of the then German Reich.

Paul Rübsamen was only charged on the first count. His occupation was a miner and a former Wehrmacht soldier in the German Transportation Security Battalion No. 606.

The following six were charged on both counts:

Paul Winkler, whose occupation was a mining inspector;

Martin Bässe, whose occupation was an automobile lacquerer and a Rottmeister (Cpl) in the Gendarmerie (Rural Police);

Karl Schrader, whose occupation was a machinist; Jakob Ehlen, whose occupation was a miner and an Unterlagerführer (deputy camp leader) at the Ostarbeiterlager (Eastern Workers’ Camp) at Nentershausen;

Reinhard Beck, whose occupation was a baker;

Joseph Crumbach who was acquitted of both counts of the charge.

The court heard that on or about 27th September 1944 an American airman parachuted to safety near a settlement in the vicinity of Nentershausen, Germany. He surrendered to and was searched by local citizens. A crowd gathered, were exited, and were pushing each other and yelling. One witness heard the words, “Shoot this dog to death”.

The airman was beaten about the face by Schrader with his fists several times and Bässe kicked the airman in the rear causing him to fall forward. Whilst on the ground Bässe kicked him again. Jakob Ehlen slapped the airman.

Two witnesses saw Beck at the scene with a club in his hand and Winkler saw Beck hit the airman with a horsewhip. However Beck claimed that he had protected the airman.

A witness named Franz Notzen claimed that he saw Crumbach strike the airman once with his fist and kick him. However, Crumbach testified that he had only been in Nentershausen for 11 days at the time of the incident. He was returning from his place of work and saw a large crowd gathered around the airman but walked on past to his home and did not take part in or witness the incident. He also testified that he did not know and had never heard of Franz Notzen.

In a pre-trial statement Winkler stated that he took part in the calls of the crowd to kill the airman and that he struck the airman twice about the head with his fist. He along with the crowd encouraged Rübsamen to shoot the airman. There is some evidence that Winkler ordered Rübsamen to carry out the shooting.

In his pre-trial statement Rübsamen said Winkler attempted to take his carbine and that when he refused to hand it over Winkler with others beat and kicked the airman. After which Winkler again demanded that he hand over his weapon or he would take it from him.

Rübsamen then warned everyone and shot the airman in the back of the head killing him. Rübsamen claimed that Winkler ordered him to do so. Rübsamen stated that he did not go out that day to kill the airman and was sorry that he was swayed by the crowd to do so.

Bässe stated that he tried to push the airman out of the crowd with his foot and when that failed rushed into the crowd and tried to push them away from the airman.

Schrader stated that he was walking by the airman when he was suddenly hit on his left side. He assumed that it was the airman that has struck him and retaliated by slapping the airman twice in the face. He also maintained that had he seen the shooting he would have tried to prevent it.

Jakob Ehlen testified that when passing the airman he hit him with a light blow from behind on the shoulder.

The court found that was sufficient evidence to establish beyond reasonable doubt that six of the accused were guilty of the charges. The evidence against Crumbach was not given full credence and he was acquitted on both counts of the charge.

The court found Rübsamen and Winkler guilty on both counts of the charge and were sentenced to death. They were hanged at Landsberg on the 15th July 1947 and the 5th August 1947 respectively.

The court also found Bässe and Schrader guilty on both counts of the charge. They were sentenced to 25 years and 12 years imprisonment respectively. Bässe was released in July 1952, but the final disposition of Schrader’s sentence is unknown.

The court found Jakob Ehlen and Beck guilty of the 2nd count of the charge, and they were sentenced to 3 and 2 years imprisonment respectively. Ehlen was delivered to Landsberg prison on 3rd July 1947 at 08:15 am. The final dispositions of their sentences are unknown.

Case No. 012-551

The second General Military Government court was convened at Dachau, Germany from the 21st October to the 7th November 1946.

Six German nationals were charged on two counts in that they did, at or near Nentershausen*, Germany, on or about the 27th September 1944, wilfully, deliberately and wrongfully encourage, aid, abet and participate in the killing of four and in the assault of two or more of the four unknown members of the United States Army, who were then unarmed surrendered PoWs in the custody of the then German Reich.

* For the second count the charge was amended to read “and Süß”

The six were:

Josef Ehlen who was the former commander of the Ostarbeiterlager (Eastern Workers’ Camp) at Nentershausen;

August Viehl who was a former official at the camp and subordinate to Josef Ehlen;

Reinhard Beck, who was a baker by profession;

Franz Müller whose occupation was a mine foreman; Martin Bässe, whose occupation was an automobile lacquerer and a Rottmeister (Cpl) in the Gendarmerie (Rural Police);

Paul Winkler, who was the former Kreis (District) mining inspector with authority over the mines in his district.

The court heard that following a bombing attack on the interior of Germany, 27th September 1944, four American airmen parachuted to earth from their disabled aircraft, landing in Kreis Rotenburg. Two landed near the town of Nentershausen and the other two near the neighbouring village of Süß. The two counts of the charge were described as Incidents 1 and 2.

In the first incident one of the airmen who had landed near Nentershausen was brought to the town by Gestapo agents Christian Hellwig and Karl Eggert at about 18:00 hrs on the 27th September. After they met with Winkler, he and the agents took the airman to a conference room at the Polish and French internment camp at Nentershausen. Prosecution evidence during the trial suggested that Eggert suspected the PoWs to be Jews and in an attempt to confirm his prejudices he subjected them to a degrading search.

Hellwig committed suicide in July 1945 before he was apprehended.

Eggert was not in custody when this case was tried but was tried in a third General Military Government court (Case No.012-551-1) convened at Dachau, Germany on the 2nd and 3rd of June 1947 and faced the same charges. Eggert was a truck driver and was either a member of or in the employment of the Gestapo. It was reported that he had a Gestapo badge, a pistol, and sometimes was dressed in the uniform of a SS-Hauptscharführer (S/Sgt) in the Allgemeine (General) SS.

There they were met by Viehl, Müller, Bässe and the local police chief (name unknown). They were present when the second airman who was being held in an apartment house in the town was brought in by Bässe and when both airmen suffered a beating by the accused. The airmen were then taken to the yard by the accused where they were shot and killed.

In the second incident, subsequent to the killing of first two airmen, Eggert, Josef Ehlen and Viehl were despatched to collect the other two airmen who had landed near Süß.

The entry for the B-24H 42-110022 ‘Patches’ in the “Losses of the US 8th and 9th Air Force Volume 4” (Stan D. Bishop and John A. Hey, MBE) reports that two airmen were confined in a house behind the vicarage in the village at Süß, 6½ km (4 mls) east of Iba. The entry also names 2nd Lt. Newell White Brainard from ‘Patches’ as one of the two but the second airman was not identified. No evidence has been found to corroborate this information.

They were instructed by Winkler that these two airmen were also to be killed. At Süß the accused beat one airman over the head with a chair. The airmen were then brought to the Ostarbeiterlager (Eastern Workers’ Camp) at Nentershausen were they were shot and killed by the accused. They then reported to Winkler that they had carried out his orders.

At 05:00 hrs on the 28th September Winkler telephoned a man named Brill and ordered him to transport the bodies of the four airmen to the cemetery before daylight.

In relation to the first incident, Ehlen testified that he was present in the building where the first two airmen were mistreated but that he was in a room adjacent to the conference room. He denied that he had participated in the beatings or the killing. He did however admit that he unlocked the rear exit door for the Gestapo agents when they took the airmen out to their deaths. He claimed to have not heard any shots being fired and that he did not learn of the airmen’s deaths until the next morning.

In relation to the second incident, Ehlen claimed that he had been ordered by Hellwig to go with Eggert and Viehl to go to Süß and collect the two airmen and return them to the conference room. The airmen were then taken outside one at a time, the first by Eggert and Viehl whilst Ehlen guarded the second airman. After the two returned they along with Ehlen took the second airman outside where Eggert shot the airman.

The testimony of Viehl did not differ materially to that given by Ehlen in that he also denied any involvement in the first incident. He admitted that he was present when the second airman from the second incident was killed.

In relation to the first incident, Beck testified that he had stopped at the internment camp at about 19:30 hrs en route to his bakery and entered the office building. He had gone to see Ehlen to collect monies owed to him for the sale of his bread. Although he had entered the conference room and saw the other accused and two American airmen he left immediately and re-joined his children, whom he had left on his cart, and returned home. He denied having assaulted either airman. Ehlen and Winkler confirmed that Beck did not assault either airman and that he had left immediately after entering the conference room.

In relation to the first incident, Müller testified that he was present in the conference room during the interrogation and assault of the two airmen but he denied any involvement in the killing of the two airmen and claimed he was not aware that they had been killed until the following day.

In relation to the first incident, Bässe testified that he met with Eggert in the office building who ordered him to accompany him to collect an airman and delivered the airman to Hellwig in the conference room and immediately left thereafter.

In relation to the first incident, Winkler testified and denied that he left the conference room to join the other accused outside when the first two airmen were killed. In relation to the second incident, he testified and denied every fact set out in his extrajudicial sworn statement. However, on cross-examination he admitted the truth of the facts except for ordering Viehl and Ehlen not to bring back the airman from Süß alive.

The court rejected the defence of Winkler and Viehl and found them guilty on both counts of the charge and sentenced them to death. Both were hanged at Landsberg, Winkler on the 5th August 1947 and Viehl on the 14th January 1949.

The court found Josef Ehlen not guilty on the second count and guilty on the first count of the charge for which he was sentenced to death. He was hanged at Landsberg on the 14th January 1947.

The court found Eggert guilty of the charge at his trial and sentenced him to death. He was hanged at Landsberg on the 14th November 1947.

The court found Beck and Bässe not guilty on the first count and guilty on the second count of the charge for which Beck was sentenced to 4 years imprisonment commencing on the 20th May 1945. On review Beck’s conviction and sentence were disapproved. Bässe was sentenced to 6 years imprisonment commencing on the 25th June 1945. He was released in July 1952.

The court found Müller not guilty on the first count and guilty on the second count of the charge for which he was sentenced to 6 years imprisonment commencing on the 5th June 1945. He was delivered to Landsberg prison on the 1st march 1948 at 14:00 hrs. It was reported that he died whilst in prison on the 1st December 1948. The circumstances of his death are unknown.

The five murdered airmen were all initially buried in the local cemetery at Nentershausen. At the end of March 1945 they were reinterred in the Lorraine American Cemetery.

Burial details:

S/Sgt. Panconi, T/Sgt. Tocket, 2nd Lt. Austin and T/Sgt. Belouski were initially buried in graves 1 to 4 in a small space on the right hand side of the steep entrance to Iba church. They were all transferred to the Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold in March 1945.

Above: 2nd Lt. Brainard (Credit Marshall and Mary McIntyre - FindAGrave).

2nd Lt. Newell White Brainard. Air Medal (2 Oak Leaf Clusters), Purple Heart. In March 1945 Brainard was reinterred as Unknown Airman X-1535 at the Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, Plot PP, Row 2, Grave 13 before final burial in Plot K, Row 45, Grave 22. Born on the 18th November 1919 in New Jersey. Son to Albert Sereno and Alice L. (née White) Brainard and husband to Lillian Lorraine (née Sproul) Brainard of West Palm Beach, Florida, USA.

2nd Lt. George Rolla Austin. Air Medal (Oak Leaf Cluster). Interred at the Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, Plot 3Q, Row 11, Grave 123. Repatriated and buried at the Grand Prairie Cemetery, Cairo, Randolph County, Missouri. Born on the 24th November 1920 in Missouri. Son to Charles H. and Edna Merle (née Blood) Austin of Cairo, Randolph, Missouri, USA.

S/Sgt. Victor J. Panconi. Air Medal (3 Oak Leaf Clusters). Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, Plot 3Q, Row 11, Grave 128. Repatriated and buried at the Holy Sepulchre Cemetery in Section N, Hayward, Alameda County, California. Born on the 17th July 1921 in Alameda, California. Son to Cornelio and Emma (née Ceragiolo) Panconi of Alameda, California, USA.

T/Sgt. Roy A. Belouski. Air Medal (Oak Leaf Cluster). Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, Plot 3Q, Row 11, Grave 129. Relocated to Plot A, Row 24, Grave 52. Born on the 23rd February 1912 in Colona, Illinois. Son to Edward J. and Minnie M. (née Deem) Belouski of Colona, Henry County, Illinois, USA.

T/Sgt. Louis T. Tocket. Air Medal (Oak Leaf Cluster). Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, Plot 3Q, Row 11, Grave 127. Repatriated and buried at the Linwood Cemetery, Section D, Row 13, Blaine, Belmont County, Ohio. Born on the 10th December 1920 in Ohio. Son to John and Anna (née Tonon) Tocket and husband to Rose (née Malatesta) Tocket of Belmont, Ohio, USA.

Researched by Ralph Snape and Traugott Vitz for Aircrew Remembered and dedicated to the relatives of this crew with additional thanks to Traugott for his work on the ‘VitzArchive’.

Other sources listed below:

RS & TV 02.04.2021 - Correction to location of Stalag Luft 1

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Acknowledgments: Sources used by us in compiling Archive Reports include: Bill Chorley - 'Bomber Command Losses Vols. 1-9, plus ongoing revisions', Dr. Theo E.W. Boiten and Mr. Roderick J. Mackenzie - 'Nightfighter War Diaries Vols. 1 and 2', Martin Middlebrook and Chris Everitt - 'Bomber Command War Diaries', Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Tom Kracker - Kracker Luftwaffe Archives, Michel Beckers, Major Fred Paradie (RCAF) and MWO François Dutil (RCAF) - Paradie Archive (on this site), Jean Schadskaje, Major Jack O'Connor USAF (Retd.), Robert Gretzyngier, Wojtek Matusiak, Waldemar Wójcik and Józef Zieliński - 'Ku Czci Połeglyçh Lotnikow 1939-1945', Archiwum - Polish Air Force Archive (on this site), Anna Krzystek, Tadeusz Krzystek - 'Polskie Siły Powietrzne w Wielkiej Brytanii', Franek Grabowski, Norman L.R. Franks 'Fighter Command Losses', Stan D. Bishop, John A. Hey MBE, Gerrie Franken and Maco Cillessen - Losses of the US 8th and 9th Air Forces, Vols 1-6, Dr. Theo E.W. Boiton - Nachtjagd Combat Archives, Vols 1-13. Aircrew Remembered Databases and our own archives. We are grateful for the support and encouragement of CWGC, UK Imperial War Museum, Australian War Memorial, Australian National Archives, New Zealand National Archives, UK National Archives and Fold3 and countless dedicated friends and researchers across the world.
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