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Archive Report: Allied Forces

Compiled from official National Archive and Service sources, contemporary press reports, personal logbooks, diaries and correspondence, reference books, other sources, and interviews.
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170 Squadron Crest
01.02.1945 170 Squadron Lancaster I NG202 TC-T F/O. John Procter Dixie DFC and Bar


Operation: Ludwigshafen

Date: 1 February 1945 (Thursday)

Unit: 170 Squadron - Motto: Videre Non Videri (To see but not be seen)

Badge: Issuant from a Helmet affrontee Argent a Plume of three ostrich feathers Azure Gules Azure.

The closed helmet signifies the duty of a reconnaissance squadron, that of seeing but not being seen, facing the front to indicate the squadron is always ready to face the enemy. The 3 feathers are in the colours of the Guards being symbolic of the squadron’s formation for and use by the Guards Armoured Division.

Authority: King George VI January 1944

Type: Lancaster I

Serial: NG202

Code: TC-T

Base: RAF Hemswell, Linconshire

Location: Mid-air collision over France

Pilot: F/O. John Procter Dixie DFC and Bar J27305 RCAF - Safe and uninjured (1)

Fl/Eng: Sgt. George Morgan Scott 2221279 RAFVR - Safe and uninjured (2)

Nav: F/O. Leslie Sydney Squires J36289 RCAF - Safe and uninjured (3)

Air/Bmr: F/O. P. Woodside J37801 RCAF - Safe and uninjured (4)

W/Op/Air/Gnr: W/O. J. R. Long R180505 RCAF - Safe and uninjured (5)

Air/Gnr (MU): F/Sgt. William Eugene Crabe CGM R205588 RCAF - Safe and uninjured (6)

Air/Gnr (R): F/Sgt. Virgil John Fernquist R215211 RCAF Age 20 - Killed (7)



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REASON FOR LOSS:


On the night of 1 February 1945 Lancaster NG202 was involved in a mid-air collision over France. The crew was on the homeward leg of a mission to Ludwigshafen when they were struck from behind by a second Lancaster RA502, BQ-Z, of 550 Squadron, which then fell away out of control.

5 of the crew from RA502 were able to abandon the aircraft before it crashed at 20:02 hrs at Fleville-devent-Nancy, some 5km south south east from the centre of Nancy, sadly two of her crew were killed, Sgt. Norman Tinsley, and Sgt. Andrew James. Their bodies were never found and they are commemorated on the Runnymede Memorial, both were aged 20. The pilot of NG202, F/O. John Dixie was able to regain control of the aircraft and return safely to RAF Hemswell, but sadly his tail gunner and boyhood pal, P/O. Virgil Fernquist had sustained mortal injuries.





The Form 760 (Report on flying accident or forced landing not attributable to enemy action) includes the following statement by F/O. John Dixie.

'After leaving the target, we were flying at 13,000', the first indication I had of any accident was a violent kick in the rudder controls, the aircraft going into a dive. The MUG informed me that another Lanc had hit the tail assembly almost at right angles, resulting in the loss of the port rudder and part of the fin, half the starboard rudder and completely smashing the rear turret. The latter resulting in the death of the rear gunner who had the turret turned to starboard facing the other aircraft. After experimenting with the controls it was possible to hold the aircraft and return to base'

For his courage and skill in regaining control of his aircraft and flying safely back to base F/O. John Dixie was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross as promulgated in the London Gazette of 16 March 1945. The citation reads:

'One night in February 1945, Flying Officer Dixie was pilot of an aircraft detailed to attack Ludwigshaven. On the return flight his aircraft sustained severe damage to the entire tail assembly. The port rudder, half of the port fin and most of the rear part of the fuselage were also damaged. The aircraft dived steeply but Flying Officer Dixie regained control and by skilful airmanship flew it to base where he landed safely without incurring further damage. Flying Officer Dixie set a fine example of courage and coolness in difficult circumstances'.


However, the heroism displayed that night did not end with John Dixie's heroism. As he struggled with the controls in the cockpit in the rear of the aircraft another act of tremendous courage was being played out by Mid Upper Gunner, Bill Crabe . For his actions that night he was awarded the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal and the citation for the award published in the London Gazette of 20 March 1945 perhaps best serves to describe his remarkable courage:

'This airman was the mid-upper gunner detailed for a sortie one night in February 1945. Soon after leaving the target, the aircraft sustained severe damage. The rear gun turret was wrecked. Flight Sergeant Crabe went at once to attend to the trapped rear gunner. Assisted by another member of the crew he cut away the side of the turret, and then tying a rope round himself Crabe climbed into the wrecked turret. He was completely exposed to the slipstream and in danger of falling and was not wearing a parachute. Heedless of this and despite intense cold, this valiant airman toiled until he succeeded in freeing the gunner and getting him back into the fuselage. Unfortunately his comrade was dead. Although his efforts were in vain, Flight Sergeant Crabe's brave and determined bid to save his co-gunner were worthy of the greatest praise.'

Bill Crabe was one of only twelve Canadians to be awarded the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal.


Form 760 also includes the following remarks by Wing Commander P.D.W Hackforth Commanding officer of 170 Squadron:

'The accident occurred on a dark night before moonrise, whilst the aircraft was returning from Ludwigshaven and when it was near the Battle Front. The other aircraft involved approached from the dark side of the sky. Both turrets of T/170 [NG202] happened to be turned to starboard at the time, the direction from which the other aircraft approached, but the MUG only saw the unknown aircraft an instant before the impact.

Contributory factors were the intense blackness of the night, plus the ever present hazards of flying in a concentrated Bomber Stream without Navigation Lights.

The accident appears to have been unavoidable as far as T/170 is concerned. No information is as yet to hand regarding the other aircraft'.


Reporter, Greg Van Moorsel of the 'London Free Press' Ontario, Canada covered the passing of the mid upper gunner from this crew, Fl/Sgt. William Crabe in the September 19th 2009 publication. Following kind permission they have agreed to allow us use of the article on our website. (We would be honoured to forward the article at a higher resolution to relatives)


Fl/Lt John Proctor [sic] Dixie, DFC (J27305) - Bar to Distinguished Flying Cross


Award effective 18 October 1945 as per London Gazette dated 26 October 1945 and AFRO 133/46 dated 8 February 1946.

'Since the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross Flight Lieutenant Dixie has completed numerous sorties against heavily defended targets such as Gelsenkirchen, Dresden, Duisburg and Dortmund. In March 1945 he was detailed to take part in a night attack against Misburg. After leaving the English coast the starboard outer engine of his aircraft failed and he could not gain height or speed. Undeterred this officer pressed on and successfully completed his mission. This was not the only occasion he has completed his mission with only three engines functioning. As assistant flight commander his cheerful confidence and courage have inspired confidence in his crew'.

NOTE: Public Records Office Air 2/9112 has recommendation dated 6 June 1945 when he had flown 29 sorties (189 hours 45 minutes) including 17 sorties (108 hours 45 minutes) since previous award. The sortie sheet and unedited text give more details than the published citation:

18 November 1944 - Wanne Eickel

21 November 1944 - Aschaffenburg

27 November 1944 - Freiburg

06 December 1944 - Merseburg

12 December 1944 - Essen

17 December 1944 - Ulm

22 December 1944 - Koblenz

28 December 1944 - Bonn

29 December 1944 - Gelsenkirchen

14 January 1945 - Merseberg

16 January 1945 - Zeitz

21 January 1945 - Duisburg

1 February 1945 - Ludwigshaven

08 February 1945 - Politz

13 February 1945 - Dresden

21 February 1945 - Duisburg

07 March 1945 - Dessau

08 March 1945 - Kassel

12 March 1945 - Dortmund

13 March 1945 - Gelsenkirchen

15 March 1945 - Misburg

16 March 1945 - Nuremburg

21 March 1945 - Bremen

25 March 1945 - Hanover

27 March 1945 - Paderborn

10 April 1945 - Plauen

30 April 1945 - MANNA, The Hague

01 May 1945 - MANNA, Rotterdam

03 May 1945 - MANNA, Rotterdam

Flight Lieutenant Dixie of the Royal Canadian Air Force has successfully completed 29 sorties and 189 operational flying hours.

Since the immediate award of the Distinguished Flying Cross in January 1945, Flight Lieutenant Dixie has completed 17 sorties and 108 operations; flying hours against the enemy, many of which were against Germany's most heavily defended targets such as Gelsenkirchen, Dresden, Duisburg and Dortmund. On the night of 15th March 1945, he was detailed to take part in an attack on Misburg. Just after leaving the English coast he lost the use of his starboard outer engine and could not gain height or speed. Not deterred by this, he carried on to the target alone. This was not the only occasion that this gallant captain pressed home an attack using only three engines.

Flight Lieutenant Dixie has shown outstanding qualities of leadership and coolness in the face of the fiercest opposition and heavy odds. As Assistant Flight Commander his cheerful confidence and splendid record inspired a very high standard of morale in the squadron. He contributed in no small measure to a successful start when the unit was formed and has done much to engrave in its members his own fine offensive spirit.

It is therefore recommended that his meritorious service, courage and devotion to duty be recognized by the award of a Bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross.

(Details courtesy Hugh Halliday's Honours and Awards database)



On behalf of Aircrew Remembered, Roy Wilcock would like to thank our good friend and Canadian researcher David Champion for providing a substantial amount of the information included in this Archive Report.






BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS OF THE CREW



(1) Sqn/Ldr. John Procter Dixie DFC and Bar was born on 25 November 1923 at New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada the son of Sidney Dixie and Beatrice May Dixie nee Procter. He had one sibling: Marjorie Dixie born 1918 and a half sibling (details not known). John Dixie was a boyhood pal of Virgil Fernquist.

He enlisted at Vancouver on 16 June 1942 and after training at 3 Manning Depot, 7 Initial Training School 19 Elementary Flying Training School and 39 Service Flying Training School e was awarded his Pilots Badge and commissioned as a Pilot Officer on 11 June 1943.

He later embarked for the UK and on arrival was posted to 3 Personnel and Reception Centre at Bournemouth on 13 October 1943. He was promoted to Flying Officer on 11 December 1943. He was posted to 83 Operational Training Unit at RAF Peplow, Shropshire and afterwards to 1662 Heavy Conversion Unit at RAF Blyton, Lincolnshire and 1 Lancaster Finishing School at RAF Hemswell, Lincolnshire. On 4 November 1944 he was posted to 170 Squadron also based at RAF Hemswell. The date of his promotion to Flight Lieutenant is not known.

He was repatriated to Canada on 5 August 1945 where he reverted to rank of Flying Officer as of 1 October 1946 (20325). He was promoted to Flight Lieutenant on 1 January 1950 and to Squadron Leader on 1 July 1954. The date of his retirement from the RCAF is not known.

He married Pauline I Williams and they went on to have two daughters; Julie and Deb.

An account of his life after leaving the air force is included in his obituary below.

John Dixie died on January 20 2014 at Richmond, Ontario, when he was 91 years old.


His obituary in the Stittsville News, Ottawa, 27 February 2014 (courtesy Hugh Halliday's Honours and Awards database) reads as follows


Decorated veteran, photographer John Dixie passes away

Longtime Richmond resident and decorated World War Two veteran John Dixie has died. He was 90 years old. He passed away on Monday, Jan. 20, 2014 with his family by his side.

Mr. Dixie had moved to Richmond in 1968 and was a charter member of the Richmond Branch 625 of the Royal Canadian Legion when it was formed in 1973.

Born in New Westminster, B.C. in 1923, he had joined the Vancouver Air Cadet Squadron while in high school and enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force after his graduation in June, 1942.

He received his RCAF commission and wings in June, 1943 after training in Swift Current, Sask. Then, after further training in England, he was assigned to RAF 170 Squadron at Hemswell.

He went on to receive both the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross. The Distinguished Flying Cross was awarded to him in March, 1945 in recognition of his courage and coolness one night in Feb., 1945. Flying Officer Dixie was pilot of an aircraft detailed to attack Ludwigshaven. On the return flight, the aircraft sustained severe damage to its entire tail assembly. The port rudder, half of the port fin and most of the rear part of the fuselage were also damaged.

The damage caused the aircraft to dive steeply but Flying Officer Dixie was able to regain control and his skilful airmanship flew the plane to its base where he landed it safely without incurring any further damage.

In October, 1945, then Flight Lieutenant Dixie received the Bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross, given to recognize his meritorious service, courage and devotion to duty. Since the Feb. incident that resulted in receiving the Distinguished Flying Cross, he had flown numerous sorties against heavily defended German targets such as Gelsenkirchen, Dresden, Duisburg and Dortmund. In March, 1945, he was detailed to take part in a night attack against Misburg. After leaving the English coast, the starboard outer engine of the aircraft failed and the aircraft could not gain height or speed.

Undeterred, Flight Lieutenant Dixie pressed on and successfully completed the mission with only three engines functioning. And this apparently was not the only occasion in which he had completed his mission with only three functioning engines.

He went on to be an Assistant Flight Commander, noted for his cheerful confidence and his inspiring, morale-building record.

But the tragedy and horror of war was part of his experience as well. He lost many friends in the war, including his rear gunner and childhood friend Virgil Fernquist.

Following the war, Mr. Dixie remained with the RCAF and was involved in missile development. He worked at the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment in Valcartier, Quebec in the early 1950's and subsequently was posted to Trenton, El Paso, Clinton and Toronto before ending his career at National Defense Headquarters in Ottawa. He retired from the Air Force after 23 years of service. In 1966, he opened John P. Dixie Photography in Nepean as he had had a fascination with cameras and photography since making a "pin hole" cameras as a youth. He became an award winning portrait photographer and was the photographer for The Jester, the South Carleton High School yearbook, in the 1970's. Mr. Dixie retired in 1979 to devote more time to his lifelong hobby of building and flying remote control model aircraft. He mentored many beginning modelers and flyers and was one of the founders of the Rideau R/C (Remote Control) Flyers Club of Ottawa. The Club honoured Mr. Dixie in 2013 by dedicating the hanger at its flying field as "The John Dixie Hanger."

Mr. Dixie chronicled his war experiences with detailed cartoons and caricatures in his journals. He continued to "doodle" in this way all of his life, especially delighting his grandsons with his renditions of Mickey Mouse.

Mr. Dixie is survived by his daughters Julie Creighton and Deb Dixie Smith and his cherished grandsons Christopher and Jamie Creighton and Josh and Thomas Smith. He is fondly remembered by Paul Smith and Kara Coville and he was always a dashing, darling uncle to Mary, Chris, Kathie and their families. He was predeceased by his wife Paulie in 2010. They had been married for 64 years.

Considered a gentleman of character and dignity, Mr. Dixie's keen mind, generous nature and razor wit won the respect and affection of friends and family alike'.


In June 2020, Christopher Thomson, nephew of John Dixie, kindly contacted Aircrew Remembered to inform us that the correct spelling of John Dixie's middle name was Procter. This report has been ammended accordingly.


(2) George Morgan Scott was born on 16 September 1913 at Newport Monmouthshire Wales the son of George Harold Scott (a Fire Brigade Superintendent) and Alice Elizabeth Ruth Scott nee Morgan. He had a sister Aileen M. Scott born 1919

In 1939 the family lived at 10 Llanarth Street, Newport

Prior to joining the air force George Morgan Scott was a Driver Fireman.

He was commissioned as a Pilot Officer (195585) probation (emergency) on 5 March 1945 (London Gazette 24 April 1945) and confirmed in this appointment and promoted to Flying Office (war subs) on 5 September 1945 (London Gazette 28 September 1945)

In 1950 he married Eva Rona Evans at Cardiff with whom he went on to have two children.

He died in 1996 at Newport Monmouthshire Wales Aged 83

Commissioned as a Pilot Officer (195585) probation (emergency) on 5 March 1945 (London Gazette 24 April 1945). He was confirmed in this appointment and promoted to Flying Office (war subs) on 5 September 1945 (London Gazette 28 September 1945)


(3) F/O Leslie Sydney Squires - Nothing further known - if you have any information please contact our helpdesk


(4) Lt. Col. Paul Woodside was born on 15 July 1923 at Malpeque Prince Edward Island, Canada the son of Clark Woodside and Maud Woodside nee Pulton.

He married Theodora Barbar Solonynko with whom he had one child.

R181090 (R181099?) Sgt. Paul Woodside was commissioned as a Pilot Officer (J37801) on 7 February 1944 (Canada Gazette.

It seems that after the war Paul Woodside remained in the RCAF. With the unification of the Canadian Armed Forces in 1968 the long-standing navy, army, and air force identities were replaced with common army-style ranks. Paul Woodside had achieved the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, the equivalent of Wing Commander, before his retirement circa 1980.

He died on 30 June 2002 at Port Moody, British Columbia.

His obituary (below) was published in the Ottawa Citizen

Paul Woodside

WOODSIDE, Paul June 30, 2002. Passed away quietly at his home in Port Moody, British Columbia in his 79th year in the loving arms of his wife Beryl. Loving father to Iain, Dawn, Glenice, Debbie, Dedee, Stuart, Trevor, and Shari. Loving grandfather to Shane, Courtney, Terry, Kristopher, Avery, Sawyer, Andrew, Bradley, Brenda, Linda and Maria. Great-grandfather to Tori and Charlie. Always in our hearts and proudly in our souls. Family and friends will fondly remember Paul as a man who found, traveled and completed all aspects of his life with intense dignity entirely as he chose.A gentle mentor of great wisdom, integrity and strength. He proudly served his country 40 years in war and peace serving 26 years in a distinguished military career and 14 years on the home front with Canadian Penitentiary Service. Laid to rest at Valleyview Memorial, Vancouver, B.C. July 6, 2002 on a beautiful sunny day under the eyes of God. Sadly missed by his family and many friends coast to coast who he touched with a spirit of great kindness. Donations in remembrance of Paul to the Canadian Heart & Stroke Foundation.

Published on May 2, 2012



(5) P/O. John R. Long - if you have any further information please contact our helpdesk





(6) WO II William Eugene Crabe CGM was born on 26 October 1922 at St. Thomas, Elgin, Ontario, Canada, the son of William Russell Crabe and Mary Jane Crabe nee Lazenby. He had three siblings: John Henry Crabe (1920-2011), George Franklin Crabe (1925-2011) and Harold Leonard Crabe (1927-2011) and James Crabe.

He enlisted in the RCAF on 11 November 1942 at London, Ontario. After training at No. 1 Workshop, No. 3 Bombing and Gunnery School, RCAF MacDonald, Manitoba where he was awarded his Air Gunners Badge on 28 January 1944. He embarked for the UK on the Amsterdam and disembarking on 1 April 1944. After further training he was eventually posted to 170 Squadron at RAF Hemswell in Lincolnshire on 4 November 1944.

He completed 29 operations including bombing raids over Germany, submarine bases in the Netherlands and famine relief food drops of Operation Manna over German-occupied Netherlands during the final days of the war.

He was repatriated to Canada on 6 September 1945 and married Emma June Rooke at Dereham Centre, Oxford County, Ontario on 20 April 1946

William Eugene Crabe died at London Ontario 10 September 2009. His obituary reproduced below provides an insight into his post war life.





OBITUARY

William Bill Eugene Crabe

Crabe, William Bill Eugene CGM [Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (Flying)] - in his 87th year. Born in St. Thomas in 1922 and passed away peacefully surrounded by his family on September 10th at Parkwood Hospital in London. Beloved husband of the late Emma June Crabe (nee Rooke), 1994. He will be missed by his son Bruce and Marilyn of Richmond Hill, grandchildren Adam and Sarah Crabe, Jennifer and Murray Mikelait of Toronto, brothers: John and Denise Crabe, Len and Jean Crabe, Frank and Viola Crabe, and James Crabe all of St. Thomas. Bill served in the RCAF 170th Squadron during WWII and received the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal, one of our country's rarest military honours. On his return he spent many years working for Ellis-Don Construction. He was a long-time resident of Byron and will be missed by his many friends and neighbours. He was a talented handyman, eager to lend a helping hand. He enjoyed weekends at the cottage spending time with his family, tinkering in the garage, and tending the fire. He was compassionate and kind to all. He had a quick wit and loved to tell stories. Visitation will be held on Sunday, September 13th from 2-4 pm and 7-9 pm at the Westview Funeral Chapel, 709 Wonderland Road North, where the funeral service will be conducted on Monday, September 14th, 2009 at 11 am. Interment to follow at Woodland Cemetery. Donations in Bill's memory can be made to Parkwood Hospital Foundation, Veterans Care Fund or the Canadian Cancer Society. On-line condolences accepted at [email protected]





Reporter, Greg Van Moorsel of the 'London Free Press' Ontario, Canada covered the passing of the mid upper gunner from this crew, Fl/Sgt. William Crabe in the September 19th 2009 publication. Following kind permission they have agreed to allow us use of the article on our website. (We would be honoured to forward the article at a higher resolution to relatives)











(7) P/O. Virgil John Fernquist was born on 26 June 1924 at Wadena County Minnesota USA the son of Victor Fernquist and Viola Emelia Christina Fernquist nee Johnson. Victor Fernquist 'Ran a Grader' for a living.

Virgil had two siblings: Verne Victor Fernquist (1922-2003) and Vincent Darrel Fernquist (1926-2019)

The family had moved to Canada in 1925 living for 7 years at Stone, Saskatchewan before moving to British Columbia where they lived first at Pitt Meadows for 7 years and afterwards at 2618 Rumble Street, New Westminster.

Virgil attended Windsor Street and Pitt Meadows schools (1931-39) and Burnaby South High School (Hugh M. Fraser High School) (1939-43) He played lacrosse, soccer, basketball and bowling. He was also a boyhood pal of John Dixie.

Aged 18, 5' 6" tall weighing 131 lbs with a fresh complexion, blue grey eyes and brown hair he enlisted at Vancouver on 21 January 1943

After training at 4 Service Flying Training School at RCAF Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 4 Wireless School, RCAF Guelph Ontario, 2 Air Gunner Ground Training School, RCAF Trenton, Ontario and 3 Bombing and Gunnery School, RCAF MacDonald, Manitoba he was awarded his Air Gunner Badge and promoted to Sergeant on 28 January 1944. After further training at 3 Air Gunner Training School, RCAF Three Rivers, Quebec, he embarked for the UK on 25 March 1944. Disembarking on 2 April he was posted to 3 Personnel Reception Centre at Bournemouth and on 25 April to 83 Operational Training Unit at RAF Peplow in Shropshire. On completion of course 18 on 7 July he was posted to 11 Base. Promoted to Flight Sergeant on 28 October he was later posted to 170 Squadron at RAF Hemswell, Lincolnshire on 4 November 1944.

He was commissioned as a Pilot Officer on 31 January 1945.

Click on image to enlarge



Virgil John Fernquist is commemorated on the Burnaby South High School Memorial



BURIAL DETAILS


The funeral of P/O. Virgil John Fernquist took place on Monday 5 February 1945 at the RAF Regional Cemetery at Harrogate, the Service being conducted by Squadron Leader the Reverend F. W. MacLean, a Chaplain of the RCAF. Virgil's Flight Commander, Squadron Leader T. T. Wright deputised for Wing Commander Peter Hackforth, Commanding Officer of 170 Squadron who was unable to attend the funeral. Also in attendance were the rest of Virgil's crew and other members of the Squadron.

After a simple Service in the Cemetery Chapel the coffin, covered with the Union Jack, was borne reverently to its resting place by six airmen of the RAF. A Firing Party of twelve airmen fired three volleys over the grave, a Canadian Trumpeter sounded 'Last Post' and 'Reveille' before each Officer and NCO present approached in turn and saluted.

P/O. Virgil John Fernquist lies at Harrogate, Stonefall, Cemetery - Grave ref: Sec G. Row. F. Grave. 2.








RW 15.03.2020

Acknowledgements: Sources used by us in compiling Archive Reports include: Bill Chorley - 'Bomber Command Losses Vols. 1-9, plus ongoing revisions', Dr. Theo E.W. Boiten and Mr. Roderick J. Mackenzie - 'Nightfighter War Diaries Vols. 1 and 2', Martin Middlebrook and Chris Everitt - 'Bomber Command War Diaries', Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Tom Kracker - Kracker Luftwaffe Archives, Michel Beckers, Major Fred Paradie (RCAF) and MWO François Dutil (RCAF) - Paradie Archive (on this site), Jean Schadskaje, Major Jack O'Connor USAF (Retd.), Robert Gretzyngier, Wojtek Matusiak, Waldemar Wójcik and Józef Zieliński - 'Ku Czci Połeglyçh Lotnikow 1939-1945', Anna Krzystek, Tadeusz Krzystek - 'Polskie Siły Powietrzne w Wielkiej Brytanii', Franek Grabowski, Norman L.R. Franks 'Fighter Command Losses', Aircrew Remembered Databases and our own archives. We are grateful for the support and encouragement of CWGC, UK Imperial War Museum, Australian War Memorial, Australian National Archives, New Zealand National Archives, UK National Archives and Fold3 and countless dedicated friends and researchers across the world.
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