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USAF C-130 Returns Prisoners Who Died In Captivity From Hanoi

The USA commits to bringing home every single one of its serving personnel it can locate, no matter when the conflict or how difficult the process, upon request by the family.

In this, the USA is recognized as being among the most diligent and caring of nations.

The following story is an extraordinary one and is told by someone who took part in little-known operations to bring home from Vietnam those PoWs who had died in captitivity. This is Jack O'Connor's moving and emotion-laden first-person account, provided directly to us by him, which we are deeply honoured to publish.

'They had touched our Heroes for the last time'

Died in Captivity Recovery (PoW)

Major John E. O'Connor USAF (Retired)
776th TAS (Tactical Airlift Squadron)

March 6th 1974

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This was by far, the most emotional mission of which I was honored to take part during my rather exciting and unique Air Force Career.

Lots of folks believe that the first of our Heroes who Died in Captivity were recovered by bright shiny C-141s. Not so!! I felt honored to be chosen to be the lead navigator on the Pathfinder Olive Drab C-130E, which went up to Hanoi, North Vietnam on March 6th, 1974 to recover those Gallant Men. The second (Recovery) C-130, (also Olive Drab) would bring the remains of our Heroes home.

The reason I was chosen to be the lead Navigator was simple. I was one of only a few crewmembers---if not the only one---on either C-130 to have been to Gia Lam Airport. I had been to Hanoi twice---in late 1973 and again in early 1974. As Squadron Exec of the 776th TAS, I went 'in country' to our Forward Operating Location (FOL) at U Tapao, RTNAB, as often as I could. This time, however, although unaware of the reason, I was ordered on short notice to proceed TDY to U Tapao. Not only was I given short notice, I was also instructed to take my Class As. I thought that strange, but I said 'Yes Sir' and proceeded. I didn’t know at the time that we were being pre-positioned there for when the United States would be given short notification that we could retrieve the first of our Heroes who had died in captivity at the Hoa Lo prison, sarcastically called the Hanoi Hilton by its residents, and, most likely, other just as horror filled prison camps. I had also been personally selected by the FOL Commander because of my experience. We had scant time to prepare---in fact, I had to borrow shoes---but we were not going to let this chance to retrieve our Fallen Comrades escape us.

These men gave their all. The least we could do was retrieve their earthly remains!!

Our mission commander was Colonel Albert Navas (right), Vice Wing Commander of the 374th Tactical Airlift Wing, Clark AB. Brigadier General Joseph Ulatowski, Commander, Joint Casualty Resolution Center, was on board our aircraft with an open line to the White House and direct access to President Nixon. It was a very high priority mission. An official Air Force photographer was also on board our plane. The General kept our President updated as we proceeded on our mission.

A little background first: As noted, I had flown in and out of Hanoi twice before---flying out of U Tapao Royal Thai Naval Base, Thailand via Tan Son Nhut AB, Saigon, South Vietnam---with the peace negotiating team. Both times, we were ordered to wear civilian clothes and be nice to our North Vietnamese 'hosts'. They took our pictures (individual close-ups) as we sat around a table for their briefing. The Infamous 'Rabbit' was in charge. At least that's who we supposed it was---Big Ears! They then took us to a hotel and fed us in a large banquet room. The food was delicious, and we were ordered (by our briefer in Saigon) to drink their beer when offered. It was actually pretty tasty. At around 1% alcohol, the brass weren't concerned about us being able to fly afterwards.

On the first mission, they took us to their 'War Museum'. They had parts of our warplanes---B-52, F105, F-4, A-4 among others---which had been shot down during the war in a park-like setting, and also showed us and invited us to sit in the seat of the anti aircraft gun where 'Hanoi Jane' Fonda sat for that infamous photo. I don't know if it was the actual gun or not---it didn't matter---I think they just wanted a reaction. They got none from any of us. The entire group turned and walked away. No one chose to sit in her butt print. Our 'hosts' seemed shocked and quite offended. We didn’t care!

Left: Jack O'Connor in the uniform he wore to Hanoi (photo courtesy Jack O'Connor)

On my second trip, they took us to their Peace Museum---Absolutely stunning!! Lots of HUGE white jade figures. It was, and I assume still is, a beautiful museum! Again they had a feast for us which we devoured while they spouted their propaganda. It was probably fortunate that we were forbidden to argue with them. Instead we simply ignored them as best we could. On a Life magazine cover, they identified Angela Davis as Jane Fonda. This was typical of their propaganda.

For the most part, we were not allowed to take photos. They did allow us in certain areas of Hanoi such as the War and Peace Museums and the downtown areas. They would not let us take pictures of the rail marshalling yard, which was full of bomb craters and wrecked train engines---nor any part of the airport. I got some of both anyway with my little Minox spy camera. They told us that the rail marshalling yard was their engine repair facility. We all laughed, which seemed to upset them more than a little bit. There was no sign of bomb damage to any of the buildings surrounding the rail yard. Our bombs had been 'on target'.

They were especially proud of the many manhole covers in the sidewalks, which were used as bomb shelters when our planes attacked up North. I forget what they called them.

A lot more happened there, but I don't want to bore you with all the tales and they are not germane to this story. Needless to say: All three trips were quite interesting!!

The Mission

It was very early morning, 6 March 1974, when we left U Tapao RTAB for Tan Son Nhut AB, to get our final briefing on this flight to Hanoi. That’s when we found out the true nature of our mission. Naturally, we all got excited and were fully 'Gung Ho' for the mission, but we sobered a bit when we got the weather briefing. Though barely manageable, the weather in the Hanoi area was not that great for our arrival time, but to scrub the mission because of weather would have been not only unthinkable---but would have caused an international incident. North Vietnam had finally agreed to release the remains of some of our fallen Heroes, and if we had not recovered them, it would have probably stopped all negotiations. Obviously it was a very important mission.

Route from U Tapao base in Thailand via Saigon to Hanoi

We topped off our fuel in case we had to loiter up north until we could get sufficiently good weather for at least an airborne radar approach. That was another reason that I was selected. I had gone thru Nav-Bomb School and was well schooled in the art of radar navigation. In fact, I had made several low visibility airborne radar approaches throughout Southeast Asia and Wake Island with excellent results. I also liked to do simulated approaches to many airfields. But I drift from the main thrust of the story.

After a final briefing in Saigon, our two C-130Es (with augmented crews) left Tan Son Nhut AB and headed north 'feet wet'. We flew about 30 miles off the coast, staying within a prearranged 5 mile wide corridor, basically aligned with the ADIZ. After a few hours, and with Haiphong Harbor in sight about 40 miles ahead, we came abeam the mouth of the Red River and turned upstream toward our destination---Gia Lam Airport---just east of Hanoi. The weather we were encountering---mainly broken clouds---was beginning to worsen. After going over Thuan Nghiep, the river straightens out considerably so it was easy to follow on radar. The weather was deteriorating quickly, so I requested we descend to about 2500 feet to have a better chance to visually make out the landmarks, when I could see the ground and the river occasionally thru the broken cloud layers. I wasn't about to trust the radio aids from Gia Lam Airport, nor Hanoi Approach Control. They had both tried to 'spoof' me before on my previous missions.

C-130 in Vietnam, similar to the one flown in Jack O'Connor's account

About this time I briefed the crew to beware of spoofing' of Navigation Aids and false directions from the Gia Lam Control Tower. They had tried it on both of my previous missions, but the weather had been much better and my map reading and radar interpretation bore out our suspicions---that they were trying to lead us astray and out of the approved narrow corridor---within which we were required to stay.

Let me define 'spoofing'. As mentioned---it is the subtle moving of ADF and other radio navigation aids to lead your aircraft to the wrong location. It almost always consisted of moving the ADF beyond where it is located normally or moving it closer so you would make your turn earlier and stray out of the corridor.

If you're watching closely enough, the pointer needle on the compass will quiver a little each time they change location. They are good at it, though, so I had the other navigator and the pilots continue watching for that little 'quiver' in case we lost visual and/or radar contact. I had my head in the cockpit---looking out the windows---searching for my ground sighting points.

We made contact with Hanoi Approach Control and advised them of our impending entry into their airspace. This had all been prearranged, so no problem there. It was farther upriver that they started screwing around with us and trying subtly to get us confused. They were trying to get us lost and force us to abort the mission so they could say we caused an international incident by not picking up those who Died In Captivity when everything had been arranged. That's another reason I had been picked to lead. As I said, they had tried to 'spoof' us on our earlier missions by moving the ADF and VORTAC ever so slightly to locations, which would cause us to fly into restricted airspace. In fact, a C-130 crew had---a few weeks earlier---and was threatened with shoot-down if they didn't abort their mission. They had bought the 'spoof', got out of their corridor, and had over flown downtown Hanoi. They returned to Saigon without landing at Gia Lam. That made the success of this mission even more critical.

Then, they really tried to get us fouled up. The second plane was following closely, mainly by keeping our radar return code on their 'station keeping' radar and---when weather permitted---visual contact, depending upon us to lead them to their destination. They stayed real close. Hanoi Approach Control called us and told to turn right to heading 020 degrees for approach to final (it is the actual runway heading at Gia Lam, but it was waaaay too early). The pilot started to turn and I virtually screamed into the Intercom Mike: 'Negative, Negative, Maintain Heading'. That was the first of three times they tried to get us to turn too soon. After the second time, Col. Navas told the Aircraft Commander to ignore the tower and go by my direction only. They tried to confuse us more on this trip than they did on my earlier trips.

Jack O'Connor's track into Gia Lam (courtesy Jack O'Connor)

From my previous trips, I knew we were still about 30 to 45 miles out and they were doing their best to get us off course and lost in that bad weather with low ceilings and limited visibility. They wanted to get us into an area with which we were not familiar---and as importantly---out of our prescribed corridor. The weather was getting real bad real fast. The cloud cover was now basically full instead of the previous broken layers. I would get a positive visual fix when we would get a break in the undercast every mile or so. We descended to less than 1000 feet, which helped considerably.

Now---Do you remember that Damned Bridge (the Paum Doumer bridge)? I used it as my pre–I P (pre-initial point) to provide an aiming point to the real turn to final. We lost a lot of Thuds and probably F-4s there. Now I was glad they failed to destroy it!

That bridge, and the Long Bien Bridge just beyond---a smaller return but great for verification---and a huge sandbar about 5 miles downstream were perfect radar returns and, thus, my aiming points to tell me when to start our turn to final approach to Gia Lam Airport. I was getting a little concerned when they weren't coming into view as fast as I thought they should. I guess I was just overly anxious. I checked radar and found both about 15 miles ahead. I alerted the pilot to be ready to turn in about 4 to 5 minutes and he relayed to #2 aircraft to be ready to follow us on our approach.

Hanoi Approach Control had given up trying to get us to turn early, but only after many loud and probably profane scoldings from them---complaining that we were ignoring their instructions---so true! We told them that they were coming in garbled (we couldn’t understand them) and that we would continue as previously instructed. We were now flying VFR (Visual Flight Rules) in IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) conditions, but we had a handle on it, so things were OK. We descended a little farther so I could get a visual on both the sandbar and the bridges (Lon Bien was a little difficult to pick out visually at that altitude) to confirm our location. I knew exactly---from my previous trips---where we would make our turn to final approach. We flew about 30 seconds past the sandbar, and with the bridge in sight, I told the Aircraft Commander to turn to the appropriate heading of 020 degrees. Decent was begun and both planes broke completely out of the overcast at a little below 500 feet. There it was---Gia Lam runway---elevation 50 feet---about 1-½ miles---right in front of us. I strapped myself in and---with a sigh of relief---turned the aircraft over to the pilots. The other C-130 radioed a 'Tally Ho', so we knew everything was fine or---so we thought.

After we landed, Ground Control took over and directed us toward the proper area to pick up the remains of our Heroes. For the first time, we saw where our Guys were patiently waiting for us. There were two olive drab tents standing in a remote area on the ramp---far away from any building. Many North Vietnamese soldiers were guarding them. After landing and rollout, we taxied to the proper ramp where the ground marshalling crew took over from the Tower and directed us toward the tents. They were having us come in and turn us in a manner that the prop wash from our engines would flow directly on the tents---probably blowing them away. Our aircraft commander quickly called for a neutral (zero pitch) prop setting and warned the second aircraft to do likewise. Both planes coasted to a nice easy stop, in the right spot without causing so much as a ripple in the tents---I'm sure to the disappointment of the marshalling crew.

After surveying the situation Col. Navas immediately made the decision on the spot to set up an Honor Guard in front of each tent. This time, we were in our class A uniforms and were not under orders to associate or socialize with our 'hosts'. We all felt better about that!! Col. Navas decided that two men at a time would stand at attention for fifteen minute intervals in front of each tent.

Each Honor Guard team was to be relieved after that time by two more crewmen---doing facing movements for the exchange of Honor Guard Duty. While the General and his entourage went downtown to sign the final release papers, Col. Navas and our Aircraft Commander took the first tour for what we referred to as 'our tent'.

The tent flaps were tied wide open. What the first set of Honor Guards---and ultimately all of us---saw, came as a complete shock. Much to our dismay, we saw a couple stacks of small green boxes---a rock accompanying each one with a white painted name and date---the date of the prisoners’ death!

The sight hit us like a slap in the face. The boxes---which in reality were the coffins of our deceased Heroes---measured about 30" x 18" x 18" inches. It tore us up to think that our Fallen Comrades---who had suffered so much---where in those tiny green boxes. Unfortunately I do not remember any of the names. We all decided individually and as a team that the North Vietnamese would never touch our Fallen Comrades again---EVER!!

The Honor Guard rotation was maintained for well over two hours while the final release papers were being signed at the government offices in downtown Hanoi. It was obvious that the North Vietnamese didn't know what to think of the Honor Guard. We saw the North Vietnamese soldiers who had been our escorts on earlier trips. They smiled and waved at us. We glared back at them. Some civilians tried to get close to watch---but they were chased back over the dikes by armed guards. It was HOT!!

We were finally given the okay to load our precious cargo onto the recovery C-130. With cargo ramps open, the Silent Aircraft sat waiting for the most precious cargo it would ever hold!! As the word came that we could begin returning our Guys to American soil---in this case, our Evacuation C-130---the North Vietnamese moved in to begin loading our Heros---their deceased captives! We immediately formed a cordon around the tents and though unarmed, we shook our heads in a negative way and motioned them to stop. We basically dared the armed North Vietnam troops to try us. They stopped with a puzzled look on their faces---but never tried to cross the line.

They had touched our Heroes for the last time.

It was now late afternoon and General Ulatowski joined in setting up a new Honor Guard (after a short transfer of remains ceremony) on both sides of the ramp leading into the belly of the aircraft. I was part of three pairs of crewmen from our plane who tenderly picked up the 'coffin'---followed by another crewmember with the 'headstone'---and proceeded up the ramp. Two more crewmen were inside the plane to take our 'coffins' and place them in an appropriate coffin. They draped an American flag over each one. We exited through the front crew entrance door to retrieve another Hero.

With General Ulatowski on one side and Col. Navas on the other, the remaining crewmembers formed an honor guard. The General called for a Hand Salute as each box of remains passed on board. We only recovered 12 bodies---the number negotiated with the North Vietnamese. In my memory, it seemed like more, but---wishful thinking, I guess. We took our time to insure that all of our fallen Heroes were properly cared for. It took a considerable amount of time, but we didn't care. As their former captors looked on in puzzled amazement, we felt insured and comforted, knowing that each former POW was honored by what we were doing.

We did it right!!

After the final Hero had boarded, been properly secured and draped, we finally began preparations to take our Fallen Heroes home.

As we were getting all four engines turning, the Aircraft Commander contacted the Gia Lam Control Tower to get instructions to proceed to the Runway for takeoff. The ground marshals were still in charge and they gave us the signal to start rolling. As they motioned for us to turn, we each got a smile on our face---we needed something light on this somber occasion. Unknowingly, the Ground Control folks had turned us in such a way that our prop wash would soon be aimed directly at the now empty olive drab tents. We all smiled as we listened on a discreet frequency while our Aircraft Commander contacted the second ship and pointed out the obvious. You could hear the joy in the response.

Both planes turned as one---and as the prop wash hit the tents---a tad more pitch than necessary was applied. While we continued our turn, we saw the now empty, useless tents and a few of the smaller former guardians of our Fallen Comrades flying and/or rolling across the Gia Lam tarmac---a fitting end to our visit. We had done that one little thing in an act of revenge for our Guys to show the 'American Wave' to their former captors. They had attempted to get us to blow the tents away with our prop wash earlier, and now we had complied with a few seconds of full forward pitch. Things went flying!!

Now, the second 'Recovery' C-130 would leave first. We would remain at the end of the runway, to make sure they got off the ground OK and were well on their way back to U Tapao AB. After about 20 minutes or so, we received the word from the recovery plane that everything was in the green and we could proceed. We taxied into position.

We all felt better as we started our own takeoff roll down Gia Lam Runway 020 and began our climb, in a right turn, to return to Saigon and eventually U Tapao AB staying behind the evacuation aircraft which was taking our now Silent Patriots home. Though our mission was not physically complete, in our hearts we knew that we had extracted our Heroes from a hostile enemy. We all had that sense of pride and patriotism that you get only rarely. This was that rare time!

We received our initial heading from Departure Control---and this time----they gave us a proper one. They probably wanted to be rid of us as badly as we wanted to be gone. As we climbed out on our way back down the Red River, General Ulatowski came on the radio with a connection to both aircraft. He informed us that he had delivered the message to President Nixon that the mission had been accomplished in an honorable and totally professional fashion.

He relayed the following message from the President of the United States: 'Job Well Done'. Never have three little words meant so much to us.

We received further instructions to proceed on our pre-arranged flight path and altitude---again 'feet wet'---to our destination.

Our trip back to Tan Son Nhut AB was quiet and uneventful. We dropped some officials off in Saigon---(the last time I ever stepped on Vietnamese soil)---and proceeded to U Tapao RTAB, Thailand. The evacuation aircraft had turned the remains of our deceased comrades over to Brigadier General Ulatowski’s Identification Folks stationed there. Further ID would be conducted at Hickam AFB, Hawaii as necessary.

A footnote: In September 2005, I was attending the 45th anniversary of our graduation from Officer Candidate School (OCS) with Col. Mike Gilroy. Another one of my classmates came to my table and informed me that his wife would like to speak to me. I wondered what kind of trouble I was in now!!

She just wanted to thank me. The remains of her first husband had been on that first flight!! We both cried---holding each other!!

That mission to retrieve those who Died In Captivity was the most important mission of my Air Force career, and will probably end up being the most emotional, important, satisfying and yet---most traumatic---thing I have ever done in my entire life!! I thank God I was able to be there!

Seven days later, March 13th the 61sth TAS retrieved 11 more of our Heroes. The mission encountered no problems.

Jack O'Connor, 776th TAS (Tactical Airlift Squadron) USAF Retired

Source: 3 September 2017Jack O'Connor personally provided a replacement document for our earlier version

Colonel Navas passed away on May 15, 2017 at home. A 1952 graduate of Virginia Military Institute, he was a 26-year career Air Force Officer.

Extracts from the official history of 374th Tactical Airlift Wing

The following was prepared by Michael Murphy and was forwarded to us by Barry Spink. Our thanks to both gentlemen.

These are extracts taken from the official USAF unit history of the 374th Tactical Airlift Wing in regards to their missions into North Vietnam after the cease fire. John O'Connor can be rest assured that the C-130 missions have not been forgotten.

Extract, 374th Tactical Airlift Wing, 16 November 1973 through 31 March 1974, Volume 2, Quarterly Historical Report of the 21st Tactical Airlift Squadron, 15 November 1973-31 March 1974 (AFHRA Call Number K-WG-374-HI, 16 Nov 1973-31 Mar 1974, V. 2, IRIS Number 1000481):

Page 15, Operations:
During the past quarter the 21st TAS supplied aircrews which flew foreign diplomats of the International Commission for Control and Supervision (ICCS) between Saigon, South Vietnam and Hanoi, North Vietnam.

Three of the 21st aircrews were involved in two special missions to North Vietnam. Capt John E. Zellner’s crew was involved in the first flight that brought back the remains of 12 American POWs. The remains of those 12 Americans were the first to be repatriated from Communist held territory, since the Vietnam cease fire agreement. This agreement provided for recovering the remains of our POWs. Two 21st crews participated in the second release of American remains. The remains of 11 American prisoners, whom Hanoi said died in captivity, were flown from Hanoi to U-Tapao AB.

Extract, 374th Tactical Airlift Wing, 16 November 1973 through 31 March 1974, Volume 2, Quarterly Historical Report of the 776th Tactical Airlift Squadron, 15 November 1973-31 March 1974 (AFHRA Call Number K-WG-374-HI, 16 Nov 1973-31 Mar 1974, V. 2, IRIS Number 1000481):

Page 12:
They [aircrews of the 776th TAS] also flew a weekly mission between Saigon, South Vietnam, and Hanoi, North Vietnam.

Page 26:
The Wing Crew of the Quarter, Crew 144, consisted of the following individuals:
Capt William H. Lamb Aircraft Commander
1Lt Norman C. McCaslin Co-Pilot
Capt Ronald E. Williams Navigator
SSgt Larry F. Maas Flight Engineer
SSgt Pedro B. Domingo Flight Engineer
Sgt Richard Cucura Loadmaster

On 6 and 13 March the [above] crew flew to Hanoi, North Vietnam in support of the repatriation of U.S. Prisoners of War who died in captivity. Because of their superior actions and appearance on the first mission, the crew was specifically requested to return for the second mission by Brigadier General Joseph R. Ulatowski, Commander, Joint Casualty Resolution Center, NKP AB, Thailand.

Page 28:
[776th TAS] crews flew a variety of missions, including…weekly liaison missions between Saigon, South Vietnam, and Hanoi, North Vietnam, and regularly scheduled, daily airlift missions around American bases in Thailand. In addition, 776th TAS crews participated in the Hanoi operation bringing home PoW DICs (Died in Captivity).

Hanoi Mission for DICs: On 6 and 13 March 1974, several crewmembers from the 776th TAS along with other 374th TAW and 61st TAS personnel participated in the return of 23 U.S. soldiers who died in captivity while interned in Hanoi, NVN. The first mission consisting of two aircraft, departed U-Tapao RTNAB, Thailand early in the morning of 6 March. After refueling in Saigon, the two aircraft flew to Hanoi via a predominantly overwater corridor only five miles in width that had been negotiated in accordance with the Paris peace agreements. Weather at Hanoi was very poor with a 500 foot ceiling [JackO'Connor says 400 feet] and only five miles visibility. The first aircraft to land was a reception aircraft while the second aircraft or 'evacuation' aircraft was slated to actually carry the DIC remains to U-Tapao. Upon arrival at Hanoi the two aircraft were parked in remote areas of Gi Lam Airport. Each crewmember on the evacuation aircraft served as Honor Watch at the entrance to the tent containing the remains of the 12 DICs from 1200 to 1400 hours. At 1400 the transfer of the remains from DRV jurisdiction to the Commander of the Joint Casualty Resolution Center (JCRC), Brigadier General Joseph Ulatowski, began. After a ten minutes ceremony, crewmembers loaded the remains from the tent onto a truck [Editor: this is an error: there were no trucks involved] and proceeded to the aircraft. The loading was done with professionalism and dignity by the crewmembers under the watchful eyes of ranking members of both the free and communist worlds. After loading, the evacuation aircraft departed Gia-Lam followed minutes [Jack O'Connor says 20 minutes] later by the reception aircraft. The evacuation aircraft containing the DICs returned to U-Tapao. After a short, formal military ceremony, the remains were off-loaded into an ambulance bus for transport to Camp Samesan. At Samsan, Central Identification Laboratory personnel would make positive identification of the 12 DICs. The mission on 13 March went basically the same except that 11 DICs were returned to U-Tapao. The high point of both missions was the dignity and professionalism displayed by all the personnel involved.

776th TAS personnel involved in the missions were:

Colonel Albert M. Navas Capt William H. Lamb
Major John E. O’Connor MSgt Bruce R. Fallon
Lt Daniel S. Kiddon SSgt Arne Suvatne
MSgt Kenneth R. Mineer SSgt Richard M. Cucura
SSgt Pedro B. Domingo Major Ernest S. Solomon
SSgt Ronald Mantzey Capt Ronald E. Williams
Major Paul M. Ulshafer Capt Charles W. Wiegreffe
Capt Richard Schrecengost Lt Glen A. Hardwick
Lt Mark B. Macomber
Lt Norman C. McCaslin

Other Vietnam Material

USA Material

USAF Repatriation of PoWs from North Vietnam

USA Wasp Flygirls

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History Airborne Forces •  Soviet Night Witches •  Bomber Command Memories •  Abbreviations •  Gardening Codenames
CWGC: Your Relative's Grave Explained •  USA Flygirls •  Axis Awards Descriptions •  'Lack Of Moral Fibre'
Concept of Colonial Discrimination  •  Unauthorised First Long Range Mustang Attack
RAAF Bomb Aimer Evades with Maquis •  SOE Heroine Nancy Wake •  Fane: Motor Racing PRU Legend

SY Draft August 2014. Minor corrections October 2015. Further material November 2015. 2017-09-01: Jack O'Connor provides replacement copy. Route Map added. 2019-03-09 SY Stars & Stripes Press added

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