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Archive Report: US Forces
1941 - 1945

Compiled from official National Archive and Service sources, contemporary press reports, personal logbooks, diaries and correspondence, reference books, other sources, and interviews.

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77 Squadron
16/17.06.1944 77 Squadron Halifax III MZ698 Flt.Lt. Sydney E. Wodehouse

Operation: Sterkrade, Germany

Date: 16th/17th June 1944 (Friday/Saturday)

Unit: 77 Squadron

Type: Halifax III

Serial: MZ698

Code: KN:J

Base: RAF Full Sutton, East Riding, Yorkshire, England

Location: Sint-Oedenrode (Noord-Brabant), Holland

Pilot: Flt.Lt. Sydney Edward Wodehouse 48319 RAF Age 24. Killed

2nd Pilot: Fg.Off. Arthur Hanley Ford 139587 RAFVR Age 32. Killed

Flt Eng: Sgt Douglas Dean Roberts 1685090 RAFVR Age 21. Killed

Nav: Flt.Sgt. James Henry Bulmer 179305 RAFVR Age 29. PoW No.349 *

Bomb Aimer: Fg.Off. Jack Stewart Nott MiD 421543 RAAF Age 26. Survived (1)

WOp/Air Gnr: Flt.Sgt. John William Needham 1459553 RAFVR Age 21. PoW No.179 *

Air Gnr: Sgt. Robert Cottar 1348052 RAFVR Age 22. Killed

Air Gnr: Sgt John Henry Brown 2209145 RAFVR Age 20. Killed

* Stalag Luft 7, Bankau near Kreuzberg, Silesia, Germany. (Now Bąków, Opole Voivodeship, Poland) and and Stalag 3A and work camps (Also Oflag 3-6) Luckenwalde (was originally interrogation centre) Brandenburg, Prussia.


MZ698 was one of 23 aircraft which took off from Full Sutton commencing at 23:15 hrs on a mission to bomb the synthetic oil facility at Sterkrade in Germany.

The aircraft crashed in unknown circumstances en route to the target at Sint-Oedenrode (Noord-Brabant), a small town north of Eindhoven and west of the main road leading to Uden.

Three of the crew managed to escape the aircraft before it crashed. Flt.Sgts. Bulmer and Needham were captured and held as PoWs. They endured “The long March” before being liberated

A further 6 aircraft from the Squadron failed to return from the mission:

Halifax III MK508 KN:A, Plt.Off. Robert Alexander Walton Blair 415498 RAAF and his seven crew were KiA;

Halifax III NA524 KN:F, FO James M. Shaw T-223146 US Army Air Force. Six became PoWs and one was an evader;

Halifax III NA545 KN:R, Plt.Off Harold William Bird 417330 RAAF and his seven crew were KiA;

Halifax III MZ711 KN:T, Flt.Lt. Fridjon Victor Stanley Goodman J42215 RCAF became a PoW as did five others of his crew, one was KiA;

Halifax III MZ715 KN:Z, Plt.Off. Alan Irvine Crain, 415308 RAAF was killed along with five others of his crew and one became a PoW;

Halifax III MZ705, KN:Q, Plt.Off. Sydney Ernest Judd, DFC, 173931 RAFVR. Their aircraft was attacked and damaged by a Ju88. He was awarded the DFC for this encounter. The citation reads: “One night in June,1944, this office was pilot and captain of an aircraft detailed to attack Sterkrade. On the return flight the aircraft was intercepted by a fighter which, attacked with much persistence In the engagement, Pilot Officer Judd manoeuvred with great skill and finally the attacker was driven off. and is believed to have been destroyed. The bomber had sustained extensive damage, however, and a wing was on fire. Nevertheless, Pilot Officer Judd set a course in an attempt to reach home. Before the English coast could be reached the fire had spread considerably and Pilot Officer Judd was forced to bring the crippled aircraft down on to the sea, a task he skilfully accomplished. All the crew got safely aboard the dinghy and were subsequently rescued. In the face of most harassing circumstances this gallant pilot set an example of the highest order.” The gunners had returned fire and the Ju88 was seen to burst into flames. All crew members were uninjured in the ditching, climbed aboard their dinghy and were later rescued by a Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB) from Lowestoft. Sgt Ronald Gordon Blackwell 852379 and Sgt Derek Rogers 1852379, Mid-Upper and Rear Gunner respectively, received the DFM. Details were promulgated in the London Gazette on 4th August 1944;

4 aircraft made emergency landings at the emergency landing strip at RAF Carnaby, RAF Catfoss and RAF Little Snoring.

(1) The fate of Fg.Off. Nott was unknown until a British Military Court was convened in Essen during the period 11th to 26th June 1946.

One Austrian and nine German nationals were charged with committing a war crime, in that they, at Tilburg, on the 9th July 1944, in violations of the laws and usages of war, were concerned in the killing of Flight Lieutenant R.A. Walker DFC, RAF, Flying Officer J.S. Nott, RAAF and Flying Officer R.E. Carter, RCAF .

Those charged were:

Franz Schonfeld who was a former Kriminalobersekretär (Criminal Secretary) holding the equivalent rank of SS-Untersturmführer (2nd.Lt.) and a member of the Nazi party;

Albert Erich Ernst Rösener who was a former Kriminalassistent (Criminal Assistant) holding the equivalent rank of SS-Oberscharführer (S/Sgt.) and a member of the Nazi party;

Karl Paul Schwanz who was a former vehicle driver for the police and a member of the Nazi party;

Karl Hermann Otto Klingbeil who was a former Kriminalassistent holding the equivalent rank of SS-Oberscharführer and a member of the Nazi party;

Michael Rotschopf (Austrian national) who was a former secretary in the offices of the security police;

Karl Johannes Brendle who was a former Kriminalassistent holding the equivalent rank of SS-Oberscharführer and vehicle driver for the police

Hans Ernst Harders who was a former Kriminalrat (Senior Criminal Detective) holding the equivalent rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (Capt.) and the chief of the Sicherheitspolizei (Security police) and the SD (Sicherheitsdienst = security service of the SS (Schutzstaffel)).

Eugen Emil Rafflenbeul who was a former SS-Rottenführer (Cpl), vehicle driver for the police and a member of the Nazi party;

Karl Cremer who was a former Kriminalassistent holding the equivalent rank of Oberscharführer and a member of the Nazi party;

Werner Koeny, whose position and affiliation was not established.

The ten accused were all members of the Sicherheitspolizei based in ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Holland.

The court heard that on the 1st July 1944 two members of the Dutch underground brought Roy Carter and an American named G.B. Lloyd who had been hiding for some time with a farmer in Valbrough ((sic ) – could be Valberg)) to the Van Harssel family home at 59 Heuvel in Tilburg. The two airmen had been evading German forces for some time after parachuting from their crashing aircraft.

No information regarding an Allied airman named G.B. Lloyd or his fate has been found.

The Van Harssels arranged for Carter to be kept in hiding with their immediate neighbour named Wellekens. Shortly after this Leoni van Harssel received a secret telephone call informing her that more airmen, possibly four, would be brought along later in the week.

On the night of the 8th July 1944 two Dutch policemen, members of the underground movement, arrived at the Van Harssel house with Stewart Nott and a Ronnie Norton ((sic) – this must have been Ronald Walker)). It had been arranged that a lady named Miss Jacoba Maria Pulskens who lived at 49 Diepenstraat in Tilburg would hide these airmen until their escape could be arranged. Miss Pulskens was also known as “Aunt Coba” and was largely instrumental in returning 21 Allied airmen to England.

When Nott and Walker arrived at 59 Heuvel, Carter asked if he could go along with them to the new location. This was agreed and the car in which they and the two Dutch policemen travelled was lead to 49 Diepenstraat by Leoni and Elizabeth van Harssel who were riding bicycles. En route they came across a car with Gestapo occupants who were stopping cars but theirs was not as it was marked as a police vehicle. After they arrived at 49 Diepenstraat the three airmen were handed over into the safekeeping of Miss Pulskens.

Earlier on the 8th July, a car driven by Dutch underground members and carrying two other Allied airmen (the identity of whom is unknown) was stopped by the Gestapo and the occupants arrested. It was speculated that the location of Walker, Nott and Carter may have being obtained through interrogation of the arrested individuals.

The next morning on the orders of Harders two cars were dispatched from the Sicherheitspolizei headquarters in ‘s-Hertogenbosch to raid 49 Diepenstraat. The cars arrived near to the address at about 1100 hrs and the occupants were detailed to surround 49 Diepenstraat to ensure no one escaped during the raid.

Cremer and Rösener were detailed by Hardegen§ who was the leader of the raiding party, to go through the house to the left of 49 Diepenstraat and Hardegan went to 47 Diepenstraat; the other accused were detailed to take up various positions in the vicinity to guard against any possible routes of escape and in order to prevent the inhabitants of Tilburg from approaching 49 Diepenstraat.

§ This may have been Paul Hardegen, an SS-Untersturmführer (Lt.) who, whilst at the Gestapo offices in Almelo, was implicated during the trial concerning the death of Fg.Off. Gerald Hood but was not before that court. It is not known why he was not before the court for this trial, however, testimony established that Hardegen was the deputy to Harders and still held the rank of SS-Untersturmführer.

Rotschopf and Schwanz went to 49 Diepenstraat and when Miss Pulskens opened the door Schwanz detained her whilst Rotschopf, with some sort of machine carbine in his hand, went through the house to the living room where the airmen were eating a meal.

Witnesses related that Miss Pulskens saw that the airmen offered no resistance and had raised their hands above their heads in surrender. With Rotschopf’s weapon trained on them they were backed up through the living room, through the kitchen and out towards the yard or garden (Platz) where without warning he fired his weapon at the airmen. Evidence was presented that Rotschopf was shouting with rage whilst he continued to fire his weapon into the bodies of two of the airmen as they lay dying on the ground.

Subsequent to the shooting, according to Rotschopf’s own statement, he was joined in the Platz by Hardegen and Cremer and that Cremer, after he had a discussion with Hardegen, shot each of the airmen in the head with his pistol.

Following the shooting Miss Leoni van Harssel, Miss Pulskens, Mr. Josephus L.M. van Eerdewyk, from 47 Diepenstraat, along with 5 men of the Dutch resistance were arrested.

They were taken to the police station at Tilburg, interrogated and deemed to be criminals. The fate of the 5 men from the resistance is unknown. The others were sent to Mariënhof and then to the Herzogenbusch concentration camp. Miss Pulskens was sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp were she was reported to have voluntarily taken the place of another woman who had children and died in the gas chambers during March 1945. Miss Leoni van Harssel was sent to Ravensbrück and then to Dachau. She was then evacuated to Waltershausen in Germany and was about to be killed but was saved when Waltershausen was liberated by US Forces.

The bodies of the airmen were covered with a Dutch flag supplied by Miss Pulskens. Prior to being taken away in ambulances to the local hospital an Inspector in the Ordnungspolizei (civil police), a Mr. J. Stevens photographed them and found identification details for Carter and Nott. He kept the negatives, which were used in the trial, but handed over the photographs to Hardegen. Subsequently their bodies were placed in coffins and taken to the Herzogenbusch concentration camp at Vught near ‘s-Hertogenbosch. The man who transported the bodies stated that he had waited there and that he left the camp with the empty coffins.

There are no known graves for the three airmen so it was assumed that their remains were cremated at the concentration camp.

Statements made by the accused claimed that the airmen had been shot because they had tried to escape. The court rejected this version of events and sentenced Rösener, Schwanz, Rotschopf and Cremer to death by hanging. All four were hanged on the 26th June 1947 at Hameln (Hamelin), three in the morning and one in the afternoon.

Schonfeld, Klingbeil, Brendle, Harders, Rafflenbeul and Koeny were acquitted of the charge. Koeny was mistakenly identified as being present during the raid at 49 Diepenstraat but it was established that he was on convalescent leave leading up to and on the day in question

Burial details:

Flt.Lt. Sydney Edward Wodehouse. Eindhoven (Woensel) General Cemetery Plot KK. Grave 93. Born in 1920. Inscription: "IN OUR HEARTS YOU WILL ALWAYS STAY TILL WE MEET AGAIN. MOTHER AND DAD". Son of Sydney Herbert Wodehouse, and of Edith Grace Wodehouse, of Harlow, Essex, England.

Fg.Off. Arthur Hanley Ford. Eindhoven (Woensel) General Cemetery Plot KK. Coll. Grave 85-88. Born in 1912. Inscription: "DEARLY LOVED HUSBAND OF BETTY. ALWAYS REMEMBERED". Son of A. William and Jane Alexander Ford; husband of Elizabeth Lawrence Ford, of Tarbolton, Ayrshire, Scotland.

Sgt. Douglas Dean Roberts. Eindhoven (Woensel) General Cemetery Plot KK. Grave 73. Born in 1923. Inscription: "WHEN WILL RETURN THE GLORY OF YOUR PRIME? NO MORE - OH, NEVER MORE!". Son of Robert Owen and Miriam Esther Roberts, of Waterloo, Liverpool, England.

Above: Fg.Off. Nott (Credit: Lesley Gent: 77 Sqn Historian Archivist)

Fg.Off. Jack Stewart Nott MiD. Runnymede Memorial Panel 257. Born on the 26th March 1918 in Armidale, NSW, Australia. Son of Charles Frank and Beatrice Eveline Nott; husband of Airlie G. Nott, of Nimbin, New South Wales, Australia.

Fg.Off. Nott was posthumously Mentioned in Despatches (MiD), Gazetted on the 13th June 1946, Page 2818

Above: Grave Marker for Sgt. Cottar (Credit: Des Philippet-FindAGrave)

Sgt. Robert Cottar. Eindhoven (Woensel) General Cemetery Plot KK. Grave 95. Born on the 7th October 1921 in Dumfries, Scotland. Son of Peter and Agnes Jane (née Richardson) Cottar of Hamilton, Lanarkshire, Scotland. His mother predeceased him 1943.

Sgt John Henry Brown. Eindhoven (Woensel) General Cemetery Plot KK. Grave 96. Born 1922. Inscription: "IN LIFE, IN DEATH, BELOVED SO WELL. WE REMEMBER THE DAY AND THE PRICE HE PAID". Son of Robert and Ellen Brown, of St. Helens, Lancashire, England.

Researched by Ralph Snape and Traugott Vitz for Aircrew Remembered and dedicated to the relatives of this crew. With thanks to Traugott Vitz for his work on the ‘VitzArchive’. Thanks to John Jones for the additional information regarding Flt Sgts Bulmer & Needham (Apr 2021). Other Updates by Ralph Snape (Apr 2021).

RS & TV 14.04.2021 - Addition of Link to NA508

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Acknowledgments: Sources used by us in compiling Archive Reports include: Bill Chorley - 'Bomber Command Losses Vols. 1-9, plus ongoing revisions', Dr. Theo E.W. Boiten and Mr. Roderick J. Mackenzie - 'Nightfighter War Diaries Vols. 1 and 2', Martin Middlebrook and Chris Everitt - 'Bomber Command War Diaries', Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Tom Kracker - Kracker Luftwaffe Archives, Michel Beckers, Major Fred Paradie (RCAF) and MWO François Dutil (RCAF) - Paradie Archive (on this site), Jean Schadskaje, Major Jack O'Connor USAF (Retd.), Robert Gretzyngier, Wojtek Matusiak, Waldemar Wójcik and Józef Zieliński - 'Ku Czci Połeglyçh Lotnikow 1939-1945', Archiwum - Polish Air Force Archive (on this site), Anna Krzystek, Tadeusz Krzystek - 'Polskie Siły Powietrzne w Wielkiej Brytanii', Franek Grabowski, Norman L.R. Franks 'Fighter Command Losses', Stan D. Bishop, John A. Hey MBE, Gerrie Franken and Maco Cillessen - Losses of the US 8th and 9th Air Forces, Vols 1-6, Dr. Theo E.W. Boiton - Nachtjagd Combat Archives, Vols 1-13. Aircrew Remembered Databases and our own archives. We are grateful for the support and encouragement of CWGC, UK Imperial War Museum, Australian War Memorial, Australian National Archives, New Zealand National Archives, UK National Archives and Fold3 and countless dedicated friends and researchers across the world.
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