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Archive Report: Allied Forces
1914 - 1918

Compiled from official National Archive and Service sources, contemporary press reports, personal logbooks, diaries and correspondence, reference books, other sources, and interviews.
Albert Ball VC WW1 Ace

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Albert Ball VC - One of the Finest Pilots Ever To Fly and Fight

Albert Ball, VC, DSO & Two Bars, MC (14 August 1896 – 7 May 1917) was an English fighter pilot during the First World War. At the time of his death he was the United Kingdom's leading flying ace, with 44 victories, and remained its fourth-highest scorer behind Edward Mannock, James McCudden, and George McElroy.

Raised in Nottingham, Ball joined the Sherwood Foresters at the outbreak of the First World War and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in October 1914. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) the following year, and gained his pilot's wings on 26 January 1916. Joining No. 13 Squadron RFC in France, he flew reconnaissance missions before being posted in May to No. 11 Squadron, a fighter unit. From then until his return to England on leave in October, he accrued many aerial victories, earning two Distinguished Service Orders and the Military Cross. He was the first ace to become a British national hero.

After a period on home establishment, Ball was posted to No. 56 Squadron, which deployed to the Western Front in April 1917. He crashed to his death in a field in France on 7 May, sparking a wave of national mourning and posthumous recognition, which included the award of the Victoria Cross for his actions during his final tour of duty. The famous German flying ace Manfred von Richthofen, remarked upon hearing of Ball's death that he was 'by far the best English flying man'.

Initial war service

Following the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Ball enlisted in the British Army, joining the 2/7th (Robin Hood) Battalion of the Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment). Soon promoted to sergeant, he gained his commission as a second lieutenant on 29 October. He was assigned to training recruits, but this rear-echelon role irked him. In an attempt to see action, he transferred early the following year to the North Midlands Cyclist Company, Divisional Mounted Troops, but remained confined to a posting in England. On 24 February 1915, he wrote to his parents, "I have just sent five boys to France, and I hear that they will be in the firing line on Monday. It is just my luck to be unable to go."

In March 1915, Ball began a short-lived engagement to Dot Allbourne (or Ellbourne), though he was still interested in other girls such as Thelma Starr. In June, he decided to take private flying lessons at Hendon Aerodrome, which would give him an outlet for his interest in engineering and possibly help him to see action in France sooner. He paid to undertake pilot training in his own time at the Ruffy-Baumann School, which charged £75 to £100 for instruction (£5,580 to £7,440 in 2010 prices).

Ball would wake at 3:00 am to ride his motorcycle to Ruffy-Baumann for flying practice at dawn, before beginning his daily military duty at 6:45 am. His training at Ruffy-Baumann was not unique; Edwin Cole was learning to fly there at the same time. In letters home Ball recorded that he found flying 'great sport', and displayed what Peter de la Billière described as 'almost brutal' detachment regarding accidents suffered by his fellow trainees:

'Yesterday a ripping boy had a smash, and when we got up to him he was nearly dead, he had a two-inch piece of wood right through his head and died this morning. If you would like a flight I should be pleased to take you any time you wish.'

Victories:


DateTimeUnitAircraftOpponent/Location
116 May 1916084511Bristol Scout (5312)Albatros C (OOC/DD)Givenchy-Beaumont
229 May 1916080011Nieuport 16 (5173)LVG C (OOC)Beaumont
329 May 1916083011Nieuport 16 (5173)LVG C (FTL)Oppy
401 Jun 1916101011Nieuport 16 (5173)Fokker E (FTL)W of Douai
525 Jun 1916160011Nieuport 16 (5173)Balloon (DES)
602 Jul 1916173011Nieuport 16 (A134)Roland C.II (DES)Mercatel-Arras Road
702 Jul 1916180011Nieuport 16 (A134)Aviatik C (DES)Near Lens
816 Aug 1916091011Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (FTL)SE of St. Leger
922 Aug 1916abt 190011Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (DES)W of Bapaume
1022 Aug 1916abt 193011Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (DESF)Vaux
1122 Aug 1916abt 194511Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (DES)Vaux-Maurepas
1225 Aug 1916110060Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (OOC)S of Arras
1328 Aug 1916070060Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (FTL)SE of Bapaume
1428 Aug 1916abt 190060Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (DES)E of Ayette
1528 Aug 1916190060Nieuport 17 (A201)C (FTL)N of Grevillers
1631 Aug 1916183060Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (DES)SE of Bapaume
1731 Aug 1916183060Nieuport 17 (A201)Roland C.II (FTL)SE of Bapaume
1815 Sep 1916095560Nieuport 17 (A200)Fokker D.II (DES)E of Beugny
1915 Sep 1916190060Nieuport 17 (A212)Roland C.II (DES)NE of Bertincourt
2021 Sep 1916abt 160060Nieuport 17 (A213)Roland D (FTL)N of Bapaume
2121 Sep 1916abt 160560Nieuport 17 (A213)Roland D (DES)St. Leger
2221 Sep 1916abt 180060Nieuport 17 (A213)Roland C.II (DES)Bucquoy
2322 Sep 1916abt 170060Nieuport 17 (A213)Fokker D (DES)E of Bapaume
2423 Sep 1916180060Nieuport 17 (A213)Roland C.II (DESF)Mory
2525 Sep 1916183060Nieuport 17 (A213)Albatros C (DESF)Bapaume-Cambrai
2628 Sep 1916174560Nieuport 17 (A213)Albatros C (DES)Haplincourt
2728 Sep 1916abt 191560Nieuport 17 (A213)Albatros C (FTL)Bapaume
2828 Sep 1916abt 193060Nieuport 17 (A213)Albatros C (FTL)NE of Bapaume
2930 Sep 1916105560Nieuport 17 (A201)Albatros C (DESF)Velu
3030 Sep 1916183060Nieuport 17 (A213)Roland C (OOC)Graincourt
3130 Sep 1916184560Nieuport 17 (A213)Roland C (OOC)Cambrai
3223 Apr 1917064556Nieuport 17 (B1522)Albatros C (DES)Abancourt-Tilloy Road
3323 Apr 1917114556SE5 (A4850)Albatros D.III (DESF)Cambrai-Selvigny
3426 Apr 19171920-200056SE5 (A4850)Albatros D.III (DES)NE of Cambrai
3526 Apr 19171920-200056SE5 (A4850)Siemens-Schuckert D.I (DESF)E of Cambrai
3628 Apr 19171650-174556SE5 (A4850)Albatros C (DES)Fontaine
3701 May 1917170056SE5 (A8898)Albatros C (DES)Marquoin
3801 May 1917195056SE5 (A8898)Albatros C (OOC)SW of Cambrai
3902 May 1917074056SE5 (A4855)Albatros D.III (DES)Halte-Vitry
4002 May 1917081056SE5 (A4855)Albatros C (DES)Sailly
4104 May 19171850-200056SE5 (A8898)Albatros D.III (DES)Graincourt
4205 May 19171830-190056SE5 (A8898)Albatros D.III (DES)Lens-Carvin
4305 May 19171830-190056SE5 (A8898)Albatros D.III (DES)Lens-Carvin
4406 May 1917193056Nieuport 17 (B1522)Albatros D.III (DES)Sancourt

Albert Ball was the first British ace idolized by the public. An engineering student when the war began, he joined the 7th (Robin Hood) Battalion of The Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) and was promoted to Serjeant on 29 October 1914. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps in 1915.

Described as an 'introspective little chap,' Ball was a loner with strong religious convictions who soon established a reputation as a fearless pilot and excellent marksman. On 22 August 1916, he scored his 11th victory when he shot down Wilhelm Cymera's two-seater. In just three months over the Somme, he scored his first 30 victories.

Right: Albert Ball during training (courtesy F.K. Mason)

With the introduction of the SE5, he reluctantly gave up his Nieuport 17. Flying the new scout, Ball's flight encountered Jasta 11 on the evening of 7 May 1917 and Ball was last seen by Cyril Crowe entering an extremely dark thundercloud. In the confusion that followed, Ball and Lothar von Richthofen both crashed.

Ball was killed but the German ace survived. Officially listed as missing in action, it was several years before the details of Albert Ball's death were known. Although Germany officially credited Lothar von Richthofen with downing Britain's leading ace, there was little or no evidence to substantiate the claim.

Moments before he crashed, Leutnant Hailer, a German officer on the ground, witnessed Ball's undamaged aircraft emerge alone from the clouds, 200 feet above the ground in an inverted position with a dead prop.

Ball's death greatly disheartened the entire Royal Flying Corps.

Today, many of Ball's personal possessions can be viewed at the Albert Ball Memorial on the grounds of the Nottingham Castle Museum in England.


CAPTAIN BALL REPORTED TO BE SAFE.
Airman Who Brought Down 42 German Aeroplanes.
From Our Own Correspondent
Nottingham, Saturday.
There is just a gleam of hope that Captain Albert Ball, DSO, the brilliant young airman reported missing, may be alive though a prisoner.
Canon Keymer, of Nottingham, today received a letter from his son, the Rev. Bernard Keymer, a chaplain in the Royal Flying Corps in France. The writer says: "I know you will be sorry to hear about Ball, but glad he is safe."
The writer gives no foundation for this statement, and Captain Ball's family have so far no official information as to his fate.
Captain Ball, who is not yet 21 years of age, has to his credit 42 German aeroplanes shot down in many thrilling battles on the west front. He has thrice been awarded the DSO, and has the Military Cross. His father is an alderman and ex-mayor of Nottingham.
The young airman's career and many of his daring feats have been described at length in The Weekly Dispatch. He once set out in a hurry to do battle, clad only in his pajamas and overcoat, and on one occasion fought single-handed five enemy airmen, two of whom he accounted for. He was a born flier and as fearless in the air as he was skilful.
It will be remembered that Captain Leefe Robinson, VC, who brought down the Cuffley Zeppelin, was missing a long time before he was reported to be a prisoner at Karlsruhe.
The Weekly Dispatch - Sunday, May 20, 1917

Military Cross

2nd Lt. Albert Ball, 7th Bn. Notts. & Derby. R., T.F., and RFC
For conspicuous skill and gallantry on many occasions, notably when, after failing to destroy an enemy kite balloon with bombs, he returned for a fresh supply, went back and brought it down in flames. He has done great execution among enemy aeroplanes. On one occasion he attacked six in one flight, forced down two and drove the others off. This occurred several miles over the enemy's lines. Supplement to the London Gazette, 27 July 1916 (29684/7435)

Distinguished Service Order (DSO)

2nd Lt. (temp. Lt.) Albert Ball, M.C., Notts. & Derby. R. and RFC
For conspicuous gallantry and skill. Observing seven enemy machines in formation, he immediately attacked one of them and shot it down at 15 yards range. The remaining machines retired. Immediately afterwards, seeing five more hostile machines, he attacked one at about 10 yards range and shot it down, flames coming out of the fuselage. He then attacked another of the machines, which had been firing at him, and shot it down into a village, when it landed on the top of a house. He then went to the nearest aerodrome for more ammunition, and, returning, attacked three more machines, causing them to dive under control. Being then short of petrol he came home. His own machine was badly shot about in these fights. Supplement to the London Gazette, 26 September 1916 (29765/9419)

Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Bar

Lt. Albert Ball, DSO, Notts. & Derby R. and RFC
For conspicuous skill and gallantry. When on escort duty to a bombing raid he saw four enemy machines in formation. He dived on to them and broke up their formation, and then shot down the nearest one, which fell on its nose. He came down to about 500 feet to make certain it was wrecked. On another occasion, observing 12 enemy machines in formation, he dived in among them, and fired a drum into the nearest machine, which went down out of control. Several more hostile machines then approached, and he fired three more drums at them, driving down another out of control. He then returned, crossing the lines at a low altitude, with his machine very much damaged.
(The award of the Distinguished Service Order is also announced in the Gazette of this date.) Supplement to the London Gazette, 26 September 1916 (29765/9421)

Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Bar

2nd Lt. (temp. Capt.) Albert Ball, DSO, MC, Notts. & Derby. R.
For conspicuous gallantry in action. He attacked three hostile machines and brought one down, displaying great courage and skill. He has brought down eight hostile machines in a short period, and has forced many others to land.
(The Distinguished Service Order was awarded in London Gazette dated 26th Sept. 1916. First Bar was awarded in London Gazette dated 26th Sept. 1916.) Supplement to the London Gazette, 25 November 1916 (29837/11531)

VC London Gazette

Lt. (temp. Capt.) Albert Ball, DSO, MC, late Notts. and Derby. R., and RFC
For most conspicuous and consistent bravery from the 25th of April to the 6th of May, 1917, during which period Capt. Ball took part in twenty-six combats in the air and destroyed eleven hostile aeroplanes, drove down two out of control, and forced several others to land.
In these combats Capt. Ball, flying alone, on one occasion fought six hostile machines, twice he fought five and once four. When leading two other British aeroplanes he attacked an enemy formation of eight. On each of these occasions he brought down at least one enemy.
Several times his aeroplane was badly damaged, once so seriously that but for the most delicate handling his machine would have collapsed, as nearly all the control wires had been shot away. On returning with a damaged machine he had always to be restrained from immediately going out on another.
In all, Capt. Ball has destroyed forty-three German aeroplanes and one balloon, and has always displayed most exceptional courage, determination and skill. Supplement to the London Gazette, 8 June 1917 (30122/5702)


"The SE5 has turned out a dud... It's a great shame, for everybody expects such a lot from them... it is a rotten machine." Albert Ball

"Won't it be nice when all this beastly killing is over, and we can enjoy ourselves and not hurt anyone? I hate this game . . ." Albert Ball in letters to his father and fiancée, 6 May 1917.

SY 6 Mar 2016

Acknowledgements: Sources used by us in compiling WW1 material include: Dunnigan, James F. (2003). How to Make War: A Comprehensive Guide to Modern Warfare in the Twenty-first Century. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-060090-12-8.Durkota, Allen; Darcey, Thomas; Kulikov, Victor (1995). The Imperial Russian Air Service: Famous Pilots and Aircraft of World War I. Mountain View: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 978-0-060090-12-8.Franks, Norman; Bailey, Frank W.; Guest, Russell (1993). Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-73-1.Franks, Norman (2005). Sopwith Pup Aces of World War I. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-841768-86-1.Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell; Alegi, Gregory (1997). Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, and the Belgian, Italian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-898697-56-5.Franks, Norman; Bailey, Frank W. (1992). Over the Front: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the United States and French Air Services, 1914–1918. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-54-0.Guttman, Jon (2009). Pusher Aces of World War 1. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-846034-17-6.Guttman, Jon (2001). Spad VII Aces of World War I: Volume 39 of Aircraft of the Aces. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-841762-22-7.Kulikov, Victor (2013). Russian Aces of World War 1: Aircraft of the Aces. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-780960-61-6.Newton, Dennis (1996). Australian Air Aces: Australian Fighter Pilots in Combat. Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-1-875671-25-0.Pieters, Walter M. (1998). Above Flanders Fields: A Complete Record of the Belgian Fighter Pilots and Their Units During the Great War. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-898697-83-1.Shores, Christopher (2001). British and Empire Aces of World War I. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-377-4.Shores, Christopher; Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell (1990). Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9.Shores, Christopher; Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell (1996). Above the Trenches Supplement: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-898697-39-8., Aircrew Remembered Databases and our own archives. We are grateful for the support and encouragement of UK Imperial War Museum, Australian War Memorial, Australian National Archives, UK National Archives and Fold3 and countless dedicated friends and researchers across the world.
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