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Abbreviations Used on Our Site

Throughout this site you will notice that several abbreviations are used. This list, although far from complete, should assist you in the explanation.

Also shown are codes that are entered in the pilot's log books.

See also:

Abbreviations commonly used on Air Ministry Forms 78 and 1180 (Aircraft Movement Cards and Accident Record Cards)

(See end of page for Luftwaffe code names)

RAF Operation Code Names:

Circus: Bombers heavily escorted to bring enemy fighters into combat.

Diver: Anti V-1 "Doodlebug" sorties.

Flower: Bombing night fighter bases.

Gardening - Sea/coastal mine-laying by aircraft

Instep: Fighter patrols over the Bay of Biscay - looking for "U" boats and JU88s of KG40.

Intruder: Day or night sortie to attack German aircraft or ground targets of opportunity.

Jim Crow: Fighter recce sortie over English Channel.

Lagoon: Anti-shipping operations in company with Coastal Command Beaufighters.

Mahmoud:Bomber support operations using rear-facing radar. On being engaged from behind, the fighter would do a 360 degree turn to come behind the E.A.

Neptune: Low cover patrol.

Noball: Attacking V-1 flying bomb storage, manufacturing or launch sites.

Nickel - Leaflet dropping operation

Popular: Photo-recconaissance sortie.

Ramrod: Similar to a Circus, but with the intention of destroying a target.

Ranger: Large formation freelance intrusion over enemy territory with aim of wearing down enemy forces.

Rhubarb: Small scale freelance fighter sortie against ground targets of opportunity.

Roadstead:Low level attack on coastal shipping.

Rodeo: Fighter sweep without bombers.

Rover: Armed reconnaissance against targets behind enemy lines.

Scramble: General term for fighters being given the order to get airborne urgently.

Sweep: Offensive formation of fighters or fighter bombers over enemy territory, designed to draw the enemy.

Tac/R Tactical reconnaissance.

A

ABC - Airborne Cigar - transmitter aboard aircraft which jammed German fighter control frequencies

AC Plonk - An Aircraftsman

Abbeville Kids - A particularly aggressive bunch of Luftwaffe fighter units based at Abbeville

Adj - Adjutant, the administrative assistant to the Squadron CO

Acc (Trolley Acc) - Accumulator (battery) - for starting engines on ground

ace - Pilot credited with bringing down five or more enemy aircraft, established in WWI

ack-ack - Anti Aircraft fire sometimes termed AA or simply flak.

aiming point - During a bombing run the aircraft had to fly level and steady for aiming purpose before bomb release and for a short period afterwards to enable the camera on board to take a series of pictures (at night a photo flash flare was dropped) to provide evidence of where the bombs had been aimed.

aircrew - Anyone who had a winged brevet, e.g. pilot, navigator, air gunner etc.

airmaids - Crew of an Air Sea Rescue boat

airscrew - Three or four propeller blades on a hub and with a spinner

ammo - Ball, Dewilde incendiary, tracer, armour piercing

angels - Altitude in units of 1000 feet e.g. Angels 20 over Dover = 20,000 feet over

Aphrodite - Use of aged aircraft as radio-controlled bombers

API - Air Position Indicator. An electro-mechanical device that combined the input from the Air Mileage unit which gave the true airspeed, and the heading being flown from the Distant Reading Compass (DRC – a gyro-magnetic compass that also had a manually input correction for magnetic variation) to give a constant reading of the aircraft's theoretical position (i.e. the position of the aircraft assuming there was no wind).

By constantly taking fixes the navigator kept a check on the aircraft's actual position and by comparing the difference in actual and theoretical positions was able to calculate the wind-speed.

apron - Hangar tarmac

armourer - Ground crew responsible for bombs, defensive ammunition, flares etc.

arrival - Clumsy or otherwise defective landing

arse end charlie - The man who weaves backwards and forwards above and behind the fighter squadron to protect them from attack from the rear

Ash - Narrow beam radar used for low-level operations

arsy-tarsy - Aircrew Reception Centre

Aspirin - Jammer to counter the German Knickebein navigational aid

aviate - Showing off when flying a plane

B

Backers Up. Support aircraft following the pathfinders that dropped incendiaries to increase, intensity and refuel fires started by the pathfinders at the aiming point. Other Backers Up were positioned at intervals among the main force and were responsible for remarking or reinforcing the marking of the target area.

bag - Parachute

bail out - To leave an aircraft by parachute: those doing so to save their lives qualified for a Caterpillar Club membership and badge: usually in forced circumstances as distinct from a practice drop

Balbo - Large formation of aircraft

balloonatic - Member of Balloon Command

bandit - Enemy aircraft

bang on - To be right on target - absolutely correct

Bar - Second or more the award of the same decoration, also shown by an asterisk e.g. DFC* = DFC and Bar

beat up - To fly very low over those who are watching in celebration or to show off, sometimes with disciplinary action resulting or tragic consequences - also to attack

Beau - Bristol Beaufighter aircraft

Beer-Barrel - Brewster Buffalo aircraft

beehive - Very close formation of bombers (hive) with fighter escort (bees)

beer-lever - Joystick

beetle-juice - Betelgeux, bright red star which with Sirius and Procyon form an equilateral triangle

Belinda - Frequent nickname of barrage ballons

bell (rang the) - Got good results

belly - Underpart of aircraft fuselage

belly landing - To land with the undercarriage retracted

belt (to) - Travel at a high speed or to hit target heavily

Benjamin - Jammer to counter the German Y-Gerät bombing aid

Bernhard - German ground-to-air communication system

binders - Brakes of an aircraft

black box - Instrument that enables bomb aimer to see through clouds or in the dark - see also gen box

Blenburgher - Bristol Blenheim aircraft

Blighty - The UK

Blind Markers. Aircraft of the Pathfinder Force utilising electronic navigation systems as opposed to human sight in order to located and subsequently mark a target with flares thus showing the main bomber force where to drop its bombs.

blister - Enclosure/housing for a machine gun or cannon; a bulge in a perspex canopy to enable a better view

blitz - Large formation of close flying enemy aircraft

blitz time - Time briefed for all aircraft to pass over target

Blockbuster. See HC Bomb.

Blower - Aircraft supercharger; telephone

boffins - Scientific or technical types who worked on new aircraft or equipment developments

bogey - Unidentified aircraft

bomb up - To load the bombs on to an aircraft

bomphleteers - Airmen engaged on the early pamphlet raids (later called Nickels)

boomerang - Returning early from an uncompleted operation because of alleged technical problems - see also DNCO

boost - The amount of supercharging given to an engine to increase power (eg: +5 lb)

Boozer. Equipment fitted to an aircraft that was able to detect when it was being tracked by enemy radar, both ground and fighter based. Boozer warned the pilot that his aircraft was being tracked by warning lights in the cockpit.

bounce - Surprise attack

briefing - Meeting of all crews before they set out on an operation, to receive instructions for the op: some might have further specialist briefings e.g. navigators

Brock's benefit - Very intense display of flares, searchlights and AA fire (after the firework manufacturer who also supplied many of the flares used)

brolly - Parachute

Bromide - Jammer to counter the German X-Gerät bombing aid

bumps - See circuits and bumps

bus - An aircraft

bus driver - Bomber pilot

Buster - As fast as possible.

buttoned up - Job properly completed, all sorted out

buzz - Rumour

C

cabbage - Bomb

Cat - Consolidated Catalina aircraft

cat's eyes - Particularly keen eyed pilot

Caterpillar Club - Club for those who had survived by using their parachutes - the pin was a small caterpillar (representing the insect that made silk) and was given by Irvin, the maker of parachutes

Carpet operation - Supply dropping sortie to Resistance forces

Chain Home - British early warning radar system

champagne glass - Handley Page Hampden aircraft

Chance light - Powerful light at end of runway which could be requested by a pilot in difficulty

chocks away - Let's make a start

chute - Parachute

circuits and bumps - repeated touch and go landings in training, a pilot training exercise in landing an aircraft and immediately taking off again

Circus operations - Fighter-escorted daylight bombing attacks against short-range targets with the aim of bringing the enemy air force to battle

clapped out - An aircraft or person nearing the end of its useful life - worn out, tired

Clarion - American plan to disrupt German communications and morale by widespread bombing attacks

clobber - Flying gear it was necessary to wear in a wartime bomber

Cluster Bomb. A bomb containing many small bomblets designed to explode in the air scattering its contents over a wide area. When used against towns and cities the small bomblets were more usually incendiary devices rather than explosives.

comb out - Make an extensive ground target sweep with gunfire

coming to town - Enemy aircraft approaching

coming and going - Applied to an aircraft fitted with a wireless set

con course - Conversion course e.g. when switching from one trade to another

coned - When a master searchlight, often radar controlled, frequently described as having a blueish beam, picked up an aircraft, other searchlights in the area would swing onto the aircraft, thus coning it - then flak would be poured into the cone

conservatory - Cabin of a plane (from the perspex on three sides)

Cookie - 4,000lb High Capacity blast bomb, usually dropped with incendiaries; also called a blockbuster (demolish a block of houses)

corkscrew - Evasive manoeuvre when attacked by night fighter - sharp diving turn to port followed by sharp climbing turn to starboard: one of the gunners, watching the attack, would order the pilot "Corkscrew GO!"

Corona - Counterfeit orders to German fighters

crab - Avro 504 training aircraft

crabbing along - Flying near the ground or water

crack down - When applied to an aircraft, to shoot it down: to crack down on the deck (in the drink) - to crash land on the ground (on the sea)

crate - Aircraft, particularly one which is obsolescent

cricket - German night fighter plane

Crossbow - Attack on V-weapon launching sites

curtains - Killed

Crump Dump - The Ruhr

crump hole - Bomb crater

cu - Cumulus cloud

cu nim - Cumulo nimbus cloud

CWGC. Commonwealth Graves Commission. Established by Royal Charter as The Imperial Graves Commission in May 1915 it is responsible for recording, commemorating and tending to the maintenance and upkeep of graves and memorials to the 1,700,000 men and women killed in two world wars in 154 countries throughout the world.

D

Daffy - Boulton Paul Defiant aircraft

daisy cutter - Faultless landing

Dalton Computer - Early mechanical hand held computer used in air navigation

Darkie - System of homing at night on radio bearings provided by base when requested

Day Ranger - Operation to engage air and ground targets within a wide but specified area, by day

dead stick - Engine failed - e.g. dead stick landing is a landing without engine power

debriefing - Interrogation over mugs of tea with the Intelligence staff to elicit what happened on the op

deck - The ground : "crack down on the deck" - to "pancake" an aircraft

dickey flight - Training flight where a pilot not experienced on operations or a senior officer returning to operations would go on an op with an experienced crew as a "second dickey"

dicky seat - Seat originally designed for a second pilot

Distil operation - Fighter operation to shoot down enemy aircraft minesweeping.

ditch - To force land on water

Dog-fight - Aerial scrap

Domino - Jammer to counter the German X-Gerät bombing aid

dope - Nitrocelluloid liquid, similar to nail polish, used to tighten and harden fabric (linen) airframe covering

down the flights - The area on an airfield where the aircraft were serviced between ops

Drem lighting - System of outer markers and approach lights installed at many airfields in the early years of the war

drome - Airfield

dud - Weather: when not fit to fly - bombs/ammunition: didn't go off

Düppel - German name for metal foil dropped to confuse radar

dustbin - Ventral gunner's position in aircraft

dust-up - Heated action/flight/altercation

E

egg - A bomb or mine (lay eggs - lay mines)

Eureka - Ground radio transmitter for guiding bombers to their target everything under control - all is well

Eyetie - Italian (plane)

F

Faithful Annie - Avro Anson

Fighter Night patrol - Fighter patrol over area where anti-aircraft gunners were ordered not to fire, sometimes restricted to certain altitudes

fitter - ground crew responsible for engines and related controls

Firebash sorties - sorties by Mosquitoes of 100 Group with the aircraft delivering incendiary or napalm loads on German airfields

fireproof - invulnerable

fireworks - heavy anti aircraft fire

FISHPOND. Similar to Monica but worked as an additional part of the H2S system. It was inclined to give false warnings and was withdrawn in 1944 together with Monica when it was discovered that the Germans had developed a method of homing in on their signals.

Flak - Fliegerabwehrkanonen - anti-aircraft gun: in reports heavy/light flak referred to to the calibre observed not the intensity - "getting some flak" - being criticised

flame float - Small floating incendiary device thrown down the flare chute so that the rear gunner could centre the "pip" on his reflector sight on the point of light and then read off the degree of deviation from a scale on his turret ring - thus providing the navigator with the degree of wind drift blowing the a/c off track

flamer - aircraft shot down in flames

flaming onions - Anti aircraft tracer

flare path - a row of lights (either kerosene gooseneck flares or permanent base electric lights) marking the boundary of the runway for taking off/landing

FLASH BOMB. Magnesium filled bomb with a time delay fuse which when detonated illuminated the ground and a photocell triggered the on board camera shutter release. The camera shutter stayed open for a comparatively long time resulting in strange photographs of white streaks on a black background but eventually it was learned how to interpret the images produced

flicks - searchlights or cinema.

flight - a bomber squadron was in one or more Flights - e.g. A and B each consisting of 6-8 aircraft and crews: each Flight was commanded by a Squadron Leader or Flight Lieutenant - A Flight aircraft were lettered A-N and B Flight from M-Z

flip - Short flight, especially when as a favour to a friend

flying log - every aircrew member was required to keep a flying logbook of every flight taken - including air tests, transport, training and operational flying - this was signed by the Flight Commander each month and by the CO. At the end of a tour the C/O and the Trade Leader would sign (eg: a Bomb Aimer's log would be signed by the Bombing Leader, The Gunner's by the Gunnery Leader etc.)

Flying Pencil - Dornier bomber

Flying Suitcase

(Tadpole) - Handley Page Hampden

Flying Tin-Opener - Hurricane in tank busting role

fold up - Suddenly crash

football feet - make excessive use of rudder

Form 78 - RAF form also called Aircraft Movement Card which followed the aircraft from the manufacturer to its final resting place

Form 540 - Pages of this form make up the Operations Record Books (ORB): the column headings are date, aircraft type and number, crew, duty, Time up, Time down, Details of sortie or flight, References

Form 541 - Pages of this form were used for the Appendices to the ORB

Form 700 - Form setting out the serviceability status of an aircraft, signed by the captain to signify taking over responslbility for it from the ground crew: the Form had to list any defects

Fort - Boeing B-17 Heavy Daylight Bomber

Freya - German early warning radar

frozen on the stick - paralysed with fear

Fuller - Counter measures agains the escape of the Scharnhorst and the Gneisenau from Brest

full bore - Flat out, at top speed

G

GARDENING. Low level mine laying in rivers, estuaries, ports etc.

gate (through the) - Apply maximum power

GEE. Radio Navigation system utilising the time delay of two radio signals to pinpoint a position.The system had an effective range of about 500km.

Giant Würzburg - German fighter control radar

Grand Slam - 22,000lb penetrating (earthquake) bomb

George - Automatic pilot

Gerry or Jerry - German

goggled goblin - Night fighter pilot

going (around again) - repeating the bomb run to get a better result

goolie chit - A scrap of paper or piece of cloth that when shown to the natives of a country over which you might be shot down offered a reward if they would return you alive and entire to the nearest Allied unit: arose from NW frontier and Iraq where the ladies of some tribes played nasty games with sharp knives

Gossage - Barrage balloon (after AOC Balloon Command Sir Leslie Gossage)

GP BOMB. American term for a medium capacity bomb. See MC Bomb.

Grab for altitude - try to gain altitude in flight: become very angry

Gravy (the) - Atlantic: gravy - fuel

green (in the) - All engine control gauges operating correctly - a needle which swung into the "red" indicated a malfunction

green (to get the) - to receive permission to take off (expanded to get permission for anything) - the airfield control officer would signal with a morse code Aldis Lamp with a green lens to give an aircraft permission to take off - usually the message was the letter of the aircraft (eg: P for Peter - .. -)

greenhouse - cockpit windows

greens - (when referring to undercarriage instrumentation) green lights referring to the retractable undercarriage legs, red lights indicate legs moving between up/locked and down/locked. When all up and locked there are no lights showing (makes bulbs last longer, most old indicators had two sets of green lamps switchable to cater for a blown bulb)

groceries - Bombs see also cabbage, cookie, egg

grope - Ground operational exercise

grounded - Not permitted to fly: someone newly married (can't fly by night)

ground-strafe - low flying attack

Group - A formation of Wings

Groupie - Group Captain - usual rank of officer who commanded a Wing

Guinea Pig Club - After an incident where aircrew were extremely badly burned they would be sent to East Grinstead Hospital in the U.K. where some of the foremost plastic surgeons of the day performed "cutting edge" surgery - the term was made up by the patients themselves - many today proudly wear the maroon tie of the club

H

H2S. Ground scanning/mapping radar system for night bombing introduced in 1943.It was designed to work beyond the range of radio navigation systems such as Gee and Oboe that were only effective up to about 500km. The system was so successful that an advanced version was still in use during the Falklands War and in service on Handley Page Victors until 1993.

HC BOMB. High capacity bombs sometimes referred to as a 'Cookie' or 'Blockbuster'. Originally 4000lbs. larger ones were made as the war progressed up to 12000lbs.

HCU. Heavy Conversion Unit. Set up from 1941 onwards to give medium bomber crews experience on four engines heavy bombers prior to their posting to operational squadrons.

Halibag - Handley Page Halifax four engine bomber

Ham-Bone - Handley Page Hampden

Happy Valley - The Ruhr, much bombed and very heavily defended

heavy - heavy bomb or bomber

hedge-hopping - Flying so low that the aircraft appears to hop over the hedges

Herc - Bristol Hercules sleeve valve air cooled radial engine

Himmelbett - German system of controlled night fighting

hockey stick - Bomb loading jack or hoist

hoosh - Land at great speed

Hoover - Fighter sweep

hours - on 24 hour clock - time - 2345 hours would be 12:45 p.m. ,also could be the amount of time in the air as calculated in your log book: night hours were usually written in red

Hun - German

Hurryback - Hurricane fighter

Hurrybuster - See Flying Tin Opener

I

IB. Incendiary Bombs.

IFF (Identification Friend or Foe). Worked in conjunction with British home chain radar to identify friendly aircraft. Friendly aircraft using the system carried a transponder that on enquiry from the home chain transmitted a signal that enabled the radar operator to identify the aircraft as friendly. If no such signal was received, the aircraft was regarded as foe. IFF is therefore a misnomer in that it could not identify enemy aircraft but merely assumed that if an aircraft was not identified as friendly it must be an enemy aircraft.

Illuminator - A crew tasked with dropping flares on a night target so that the following a/c could aim accurately

intell - intelligence officer (I/O) or intelligence report

intercom - System by which the various crew members communicated with each other by voice in the aircraft

Irvin Jacket - Standard RAF leather flying jacket lined with fleece

J

Jerry - German (plane)

Jerrycan - Excellent German heavy duty portable can for holding water, fuel or other liquid - quickly replaced the leaky tins used by the RAF, was manufactured in England to the German pattern

Jink away - Sharp manoeuvre, sudden evasive action of aircraft

Jostle – 2.5kW airborne jamming transmitter carried in sealed bomb bays of 100 Group Fortresses, from Telecommunications Research Establishment.

Juice - Aviation fuel (as in "we are low on juice") - also "gravy" - AVGAS was 100 Octane petrol

K

K site - Airfields with dummy aircraft for deception by day

Kipper Kite - Coastal Command aircraft which protected fishing fleets in the North and Irish Seas

Knickebein - German navigational aid

knot - Measure of air or ground speed - one nautical mile per hour (1.150 statute miles per hour)

L

Lagoon - Shipping reconnaissance operation off the Dutch coast

Lanc - Avro Lancaster bomber

let down - Descend through cloud

let up - Ease up on throttle

Lib - Consolidated B-24 Liberator

Lichtenstein - German night fighter radar

Lindholme gear - Equipment dropped from air-sea rescue aircraft to crews ditched in the sea, developed at RAF Lindholme

line book - book kept in the Mess in which two or more officers could record a 'line shoot' by someone

line shoot - shooting a line - exaggerating one's accomplishments - usually responded to by the line "there I was upside down, nothing on the clock but the makers name...."

Loran - short for long range navigation, was a hyperbolic radio navigation system developed in the United States during World War II. It was similar to the UK's Gee system but operated at lower frequencies in order to provide improved range up to 1,500 miles (2,400 km) with accuracy of tens of miles.

Lorenz system - Blind beam approach system

M

Mae West - Inflatable life vest worn over flying suit (when inflated resembled the pigeon breasted movie star)

Mahmoud sortie - night fighter sortie to specific point over enemy territory to engage his night fighters in that area

mahogany Spitfire - desk - "flown" by penguins and ground walla's

main bit - Major section of an aircraft

MC BOMB. Medium capacity bomb usually identified by their weight and/or fuse type/delay.

Mandrel - Airborne radio swamping of the German early warning system, device used by 100 Group

Meacon - Stations set up to broadcast signals aimed at 'bending' or altering German navigation transmissions

Met - Meteorology Officer or weather report

Mickey Mouse - Bomb-dropping controls - the bombing panel consisted of a clockwork distributor and selection switches (hence like a mickey mouse watch)

milling around - Aircraft forming defensive circle

mixed death - Various types of ammunition combined in a belt

Monica - Radar fitted in rear of Bomber Command aircraft to provide some early warning of night fighters; in July 1944 it was found that Monica was being detected as a homing signal for the Luftwaffe

Mossie - De Haviland Mosquito aircraft

Musical Paramatta - method of ground marking a target by coloured target indicators dropped blindly on Oboe

Musical Wanganui - method of sky marking a target by parachute borne coloured markers dropped blindly on Oboe

N

Naxos - German radar device enabling fighters to home on H2S transmissions of bombers

Newhaven - Method of ground marking a target by flares or target indicators dropped blindly on HS followed by visual identification

Nickels - Propaganda leaflets

Night Ranger - Operation to engage air and ground targets within a wide but specified area, by night

NJG. Abbreviation of nachtjagdgeschwader. ( German Night Fighter Squadron).

NoK - or N.o.K - Next of Kin

O

OBOE. Introduced in early 1943 Oboe was a radio navigation system. Two radio transmitters in England broadcast signals to the aircraft carrying the Oboe equipment and these signals were then transmitted back. One of the transmitter stations guided the aircraft on the correct course by sending signals to the pilot if he wavered off the correct course whilst the other one calculated by reference to the aircraft's ground speed when he was in the correct location to drop his bombs. The system was only effective up to about 500 km and because it was capable of controlling just one aircraft at once it was necessarily used by Pathfinders to more accurately locate the target to be marked.

office - Cockpit of aircraft

On the beam - Some stations were equipped with a landing beam which told the pilot he was on the correct glide slope for landing - if he flew too high he would hear a series of morse dots and if too low a series of morse dashes - the idea was to keep a steady tone in one's earphones - also showed up in some aircraft as a set of lights showing that one was on the correct beam or too high or low - also used for flying on a navigation beam such as Gee or Oboe - generally translated to being on the right course of action about anything as in "I think the Wingco's on the beam about not flying over the Alps again."

op (operation) - Attack on the enemy (USAAF term - "mission")

opsum - Operational Summary - prepared by the Intelligence Officer from debriefing notes recording the results of an operation

ORB - All RAF units produced historic records of their activities. They are known as Operations Record Books [ORB] and contain a collection of RAF Forms 540, a monthly record of events that include details of exercises, training, technical matters, sports and entertainment, health and a variety of other day to day activities. These monthly records were signed by the station's Commanding Officer. The ORB also has detailed attachments containing RAF orders relating to exercises and operations and a few photographs. Units completing ORBs include RAF Commands, Groups, Wings, Sections, Stations and Squadrons. The ORB was used to furnish a complete history of the unit and was collected, amongst other things, to be used to improve organisation, equipment and administration. Form 540 was classified 'Secret'. It must be born in mind that the official record was heavily censored, often before it was put into the public archive and so in many instances further research needs to be carried out to 'fill in the gaps'. (from RAF Davidstow Moor site)

OTU. Operational Training Unit.

overload tanks - Extra fuel tanks required when for example a Wellington was operated at i ts extreme range - two could be fitted in the bomb bays and one could be fitted on the rest cot in the fuselage

Overlord - Allied invasion of northern France in June 1944

P

pack up - cease to function - "My port engine packed up coming out of the target area"

Pampa - Long-range weather reporting sortie

pancake - To land

party - Air battle

PATHFINDERS. Aircraft that flew ahead of the main force to mark the target and approach route with coloured flares (target indicators), incendiaries and/or bombs.

peel off (to) - Break formation to engage enemy

perch - To land

PFF. Pathfinder Force.

piece of cake - An easy target with little opposition - anything easily done

piece of nice - Any pleasant entertainment

Pink Pansy - an incendiary bomb - made from Benzol, rubber and phosphorous. Also used as a marker (Usually around 2,800 lbs)

plaster - To bomb heavily and accurately

play pussy - Hide in the clouds.

pleep - A squeak, rather like a high note klaxon.

plug away - Continue to fire, keep going for target

plumber - Armourer

poop off - Open fire

port - The left side of a/c as seen from pilots seat

posted - Orders sending a crewman to another station or responsibility

prang - To crash an a/c or to hit a target well

Prata - Weather reconnaissance flight

pulpit - Cockpit of aircraft

pundit - Flashing light which signalled the airfield identity in order to assist navigation

Q

Q-site - Site flashing lights to represent a mock airfield to attract enemy attention at night

Queen Mary - An articulated "semi" trailer used to transport aircraft or aircraft parts by ground to Maintenance Units for service or refurbishment

quick squirt - Short sharp burst of machine-gun fire - "quickie"

R

Ramrod - Bomber raid escorted by fighters aimed at destruction of a specific target in daylight

Ranger - Usually a deep penetration flight to a specified area, to engage targets of opportunity

Rhombus - Weather reporting flight

Rhubarb - Low-level strike operation mounted in cloudy condition against enemy targets in Occupied Countries

rigger - Ground crew responsible for airframe (specialists might include "instrument bashers" and "sparks" to look after instruments and electrical systems)

rings - Rank designation on officer's cuffs e.g. half ringer = Pilot Officer, one ringer = Flying Officer, two ringer = Flight Lieutenant, two and a half = Squadron Leader, three = Wing Commander

Roadstead - Fighter operation mounted against shipping

Rodeo - Fighter sweep

roddie or rodded bombs - bomb fitted with a rod in the nose so that it would explode above the ground - used in antipersonnel ops

round - One cartridge of .303 ammunition, ammunition was measured in number of rounds carried

Rover - Coastal Command armed patrol to search for enemy shipping

runup - To test engines for magneto drop before taking off - also the route taken into the target area before the bomb dropping point was reached

S

SSQ - Station Sick Quarters

salvo - Bomb selection which released all bombs at the same time

sardine-tin - Torpedo carrying plane

Sashlite bulb - Photo-flash bulb used for training and experimental purposes

scarecrow - Crews reported aircraft blowing up without evidence of attacks (e.g. tracer), and the story arose that the Germans were firing scarecrow shells to simulate stricken aircraft, so as to demoralise crews. Probably actually the result of Schräge Musik attacks, but less easy to explain in daylight reports.

scarlet slugs - Bofors tracer fire

Schräge Musik - Devastatingly successful upward firing gun fighter attack using tracer-less ammunition against bombers used by expert Luftwaffe pilots.

scramble - Immediate operational take off

scream downhill - Execute a power dive

screamer - Bomb that makes a whistling sound as it comes down

screened - Period after completing a tour when aircrew could not be called on to do operational flying

scrub - Cancel an op

scrub around - Evasive action

second dickey - Additional pilot usually aboard for experience on an operation before starting ops with his own crew: the first pilot is however not called a first dickey

Serrate sortie - Operation to locate and destroy enemy night fighters and combined with night bomber raids. Made use of airborne radar

Shagbat - Supermarine Walrus aircraft

SHIVER. Radio transmission system used by bombers to jam or swamp German ground radar.

silver sausage - Barrage balloon

sky-piece - Smoke trails

snake about - Evasive action when chased by enemy fighters or searchlights or AA fire

snappers - Enemy fighters

soggy - Aircraft with unresponsive controls; soggy type

sortie - One aircraft doing one trip to target and back

soup - Fog; "tangled in the soup" - astray in the fog

spam can - B-24 Liberator

Spit - Supermarine Spitfire aircraft

spoof - Diversionary raid or operation

Spartan - Exercise to establish methods of making entire airfield formation mobile

squadron vic - V shaped formation of aircraft

squirt - To fire a short burst from machine guns - as in "the R/G gave him a squirt before we went into the corkscrew"

stand down - no operations planned

starboard - Right side of the a/c as seen from pilot's seat

Starfish - UK decoy sites with various fire and illumination effects simulating targets to lure Axis bomber formations e.g. Langstone Harbour for Portsmouth

stick - Bomb selection so that bombs would be released at timed intervals from their carriers in the bomb bay (also to release only a part of bomb load, going around a second time to drop the rest)

Sun - Short Sunderland aircraft

Sunray - Overseas training flight for bomber crews

Sunray - Code for any CO

sweep - Systematic operation to flush out targets in a given area e.g. fighter sweep

T

Tallboy - 12,0001b penetrating (earthquake) bomb

tail end Charlie - rear gunner or rear aircraft of a formation

take it on - (aeroplane) climb rapidly

Tame Sow/Zahme Sau - German tactics, designed to bring night fighters in contact with bombers moving to and from target, using co-ordinated groups

taps - Controls, indicators in the cockpit or cabin of an aircraft

taters (sack of) - Load of bombs delivered to same address

taxi - Plane carrying small number of passengers

taxi-driver - Instructor at a school of air navigation

TD. Time delay referring to a bomb fuse.

teat - Electric button which fires the guns (or tit, also for dropping bombs)

Tee Emm - RAF Magazine (as in Training Manual), post war retitled Happy Landings

tee up - Prepare a job, to get ready.

ten-tenths - No visibility because of total cloud cover - also 10/10ths flak - very heavy concentration

three pointer - Excellent landing (on all three wheels)

Thum - Weather reporting flight

TI. Target Indicator (see Pathfinder)

TINSEL. Jamming system whereby engine noise, picked up by a microphone in a bomber's engine housing was transmitted by the wireless operator on German fighter frequencies to disrupt or drown out their communication with their controllers.

tool along - Fly aimlessly

totem-pole - Airfield lighting equipment of this shape

touch bottom - Crash

touch down - Land

tour (of operations) - initially a period of time, later a number of ops, that a bomber crewman had to complete before being screened

toy - Training aircraft or Link Trainer

tracer - Type of machine gun round which glowed as it moved showing the way to the target and allowing for adjustments in sighting - unfortunately also gave away the firer's position - usually every fourth round was a tracer

train (driving the) - leading more than one squadron into battle

trip - an op

trousers - Fairing of the undercarriage legs of certain types of aircraft

turn up the wick - Open the throttle

twitch - body tremors developed by aircrew after a number of operations - "he's got the twitch" - sign of operational stress

U

undercart - Undercarriage of an aircraft - two main wheels and a tail wheel in the case of "taildraggers" like the Wellington - two main and a nosewheel for "tricycle" aircraft like the B-24 - attempting a landing with the 'cart "up" was considered a "putting up a large black" for the pilot

upstairs - In the air

up top - Flying high

UP - Projector for firing Z rockets

V

vegetables - Acoustic or magnetic mines sowed on gardening expeditions to various "beds"

vic - Aircraft formation in the shape of a "vee" usually three aircraft but could be more

visiting card - Bomb

W

waffle/waffling - Out of control, losing height; or cruising along unconcernedly and indecisively

washed out - scrubbed - to fail as a student pilot - bomb aimers or navigators in particular were often scrubbed pilots

Wassermann - German early warning radar

weaving - Gentle form of corkscrew - evasive manoeuvre to allow gunners maximum view around aircraft, especially below.

whiff - Oxygen

Whispering Death - Beaufighter

whistle (to) - Depart hurriedly e.g. scramble

whistler - High explosive bomb as it comes down

Wild Sow/Wilde Sau - German tactics to engage bombers over the target by individual fighters

Wimpey - Vickers Armstrong's Wellington Bomber

WINDOW. Foil strips dropped via the flare chutes on bombers in order to disrupt or fool German radar into believing it was detecting a much larger force than it was. The foil was covered in black card so as not to be seen by enemy searchlights.

Wing - Unit made up of two or sometimes three squadrons

Wingco - Wing Commander

wizard/wizzo - Really first class, superlative, attractive, ingenious

wop - Wireless Operator

wopag - Wireless Operator/Air Gunner

wom - Wireless Operator/Mechanic

woof - To open the throttle very quickly

wrap up - Crash

Würzburg - German radar used to direct A.A. guns, searchlights, and briefly, night fighters

X

X-Gerät - German bombing aid

Y

Y-control - Method of controlling night fighters using modified Y-Gerät equipment

Y-Gerät - German bombing aid

Y Service - Ground based signals monitoring service, using German or Italian speaking operators

yellow doughnut - collapsible dinghy carried on aircraft

yellow peril - training aircraft

LOG BOOK TRAINING CODES

1.A. Familiarisation - Ground

2.A. Familiarisation - Air (Including simple explanation of flight)

1.C. Tarmac check - (Including starting up and handling of the engine)

2.The flying controls

3. Taxiing

4. Straight and level flight

4.I.F. Straight and level flight on instruments

5. Climbing, descending, gliding

5.I.F. Climbing, descending, gliding on instruments

5.A. Stalling

6. Turning

6.A. Climbing turns

6.B. Descending turns

6.C. Gliding turns

6.I.F. Turning on instruments

7. Take off

7.A. Out of wind take off

7.I.F. Take off on instruments

The Circuit

8. Gliding approach and landing

8.A. Out of wind landings

9. Engine assisted approach

10. spinning - (Including further demonstrations of stalling and incipient spinning) No. of spins each watt to be inserted.

10.I.F. Spinning on instruments

11. solo check (Including overshoot and undershoot procedure)

First Solo.

12. Side slipping

13. Precautionary landings

14. Low flying

15. Steep turns

15.A. Steep descending and gliding turns

16. Gliding turns - (see sequence 6)

17. Forced landings

18. Action in event of fire

18.A.Abandoning aircraft

19. Instrument flying (General)

22. Aerobatics

23. (1) Steering by compass

23. (2) Turning from one course to another

23. (3) Recognition of pinpoints

23. (4) Use of time scale

23. (2) Turning from one course to another - solo

23. ℗ Pinpoints - solo

24. Cross country - solo

25. Night flying (number of landings to be inserted)

Flight Commanders Test

Final Test

At and from 12-09-1942 the numbers only of the above sequences are to be entered in the log book. Those above which are underlined must be entered in RED INK. The numbers for all sequences carried out on any one trip may be entered on one line in order to conserve space. All wording necessary must be in BLOCK capitals. The utmost neatness and accuracy is essential.

LUFTWAFFE CODE NAMES AND EXPRESSIONS

Deutscher Funkverkehr / Codewörter

Funkverkehr Bedeutung

ANTRETEN Auf kürzestem Wege Kurs nehmen

ALBATROS Seenotrettungsflugzeug

AMPULLE Angriff starten

BUCHBINDER Angriff abbrechen

AMPULLE RICHARDUS Angriff fortsetzen/wiederholen

ARTHUR Artillerie

ÄQUATOR In den Wolken

NORDPOL Oben

SÜDPOL Unten

AUGUSTUS Aufklärer -> NACHTWÄCHTER -> SPÄHWAGEN

AUSSENSEITER Nebenangriff -> MARKTPLATZ

AUTOBAHN DRÜCKEN Landefunkfeuer an

AUTOBAHN UMLEGEN Landefunkfeuer aus

AUTOS Feindliche Zweimotorige Flugzeuge

DICKE AUTOS Feindliche schwere Bomber 4-mots

BAHNHOF Heimathafen

BERGE Tieffliegende Feindflieger

BIENE Jagdschutz

BLAUE TRUPPEN Eigene Truppen

ROTE TRUPPEN Feindliche Truppen

BLIND Keine Fühlung

BODO Bodenstelle, Gefechtsstand

BRUCH IM GARTENZAUN Bruchlandung auf dem Platz

BUCHBINDER Bombenabwurf

CARUSO Kurs

DAMENWAHL Führer eines Verbandes wechseln

DICKE AUTOS Feindliche Viermotorige Flugzeuge

DICKE MÖBELWAGEN Eigene drei- oder viermotorige Flugzeuge

DONNERKEIL Nachstoßen

DREIMAL ROLF|LISA Kurs 30° nach rechts / links verbessern

EILE Eigene Geschwindigkeit

EINBRECHER Eintritt in Flaksperrgebiet

ENTE Entfernung zum Feind

EXPRESS Fliegen Sie schneller

EXPRESS-EXPRESS Äußerste Geschwindigkeit

FAHRTRICHTUNG Landerichtung

FALKE Flugzeug

FAMILIE Welle, Pulk

FEIERABEND Starte Zielanflug

FEUERZAUBER Flak

FRAGEZEICHEN Unbekannte Flugzeuge

FRIEDA Fallen

GARTENZAUN Flugplatz

GEBEN SIE AUF ... Mit Gefechtsstand/Heimat sprechen

GEHEN SIE INS VORZIMMER Warten Sie

GLEICHER KIRCHTURM Gleiche Flughöhe wie Feindmaschinen -> KIRCHTURM

HALBZEIT Luftkampf abbrechen

HALLO Höhe

HALLO TONI Höhe 1 bis 100m

HALLO 23 Höhe 2300m

HALTEN Fliegen Sie langsamer

HANNY Höhe des Feindes

HAUS (KENNZIFFER) Ausweichhafen mit optionaler Kennziffer

HAUS ZWEI Ausweichhafen zwei anfliegen

HAVANNA Sofortige Landung auf schnellstem Wege

HORRIDO Abschuss

ICH BERÜHRE Visueller Kontakt zum Ziel

ICH BIN ANGESTRAHLT Liege unter Beschuss

ICH BIN BLIND Fühlung verloren

ICH BIN DA Bin am Platz

ICH HABE DURST Treibstoffmangel

ICH STEIGE AUS Fallschirmabsprung

ICH STOPFE Waffenausfall

ICH SUCHE Ziel nicht gesehen/verloren

INDIANER Feindliche Jäger

INGO Infanterie

JUGENDZEIT Flugzeit bis zur Landung

KARUSSELL LISA Kreisen über links

KARUSSELL ROLF Kreisen über rechts

KIRCHTURM Eigene Höhe

KLEINER RUTSCH Bauchlandung

KONDOR Befehl ausgeführt

KONGO Boden

KONKURRENZ Luftgefahr

KREUZUNG Bin in Not, bitte auf taktische Weise anpeilen

KURFÜRST Kurs

LABETRUNK Landung

LISA Kurs 10° nach links verbessern

LUCIE-ANTON Landung

MARKTPLATZ Hauptangriffsziel

MARIE Kurs liegt richtig

MAUERBLUME Feindberührung

MEIN PFERD LAHMT Motorschaden

MÖBELWAGEN Eigene zweimotorige Flugzeuge

MOTTO motorisiert

MYO Sirene, Feindflieger am eigenen Flugplatz

MYO NIL Eigener Flugplatz frei

NAPOLI Achtung Nebel

NACHTWÄCHTER Aufklärer

NATRON Nicht verstanden

NORDPOL Über den Wolken

NORMALUHR Bleiben Sie in...

ODYSSEUS Seenotrettungsfahrzeug

ORKAN Geschwindigkeit des Feindes

OTTO Standort-Bezugspunkt

PATERRE Tiefflug

PAUSE Flugzeit in Minuten

PAUKE-PAUKE Angreifen

PELIKAN Feindliches Schiff

PIRATEN Jäger

QUELLE Standort

RADFAHRER Eigene einmotorige Flugzeuge

RENNAUTO Schnelle Kampfflugzeuge

RAKETE Start

RAUPE Raum

REISE, REISE NACH Raum verlassen nach

RICARDUS Nicht verstanden, bitte wiederholen

ROLF Kurs 10° nach rechts verbessern

ROLF-LISA Flügelwackeln zur Erkennung

ROTE TRUPPEN Feindliche Truppen

SAGO Sammeln

SAGORAUPE Sammelraum

SCHEIBENSTAND Lage noch ungeklärt

SCHLÄCHTER Schlachtflieger

SIEGFRIED Steigen

SILBERSTREIFEN Sicht

SOLOTANZ Start

SPÄHWAGEN Aufklärer

SPIELBEGINN Feindverband erkannt

STACHELDRAHT Sperre fliegen

STAUBWOLKE Viele Flugzeuge

STERNTALER Nachfliegende Feindjäger

STOLA WACHS Stellungswechsel

STRASSENRÄUBER Fernnachtjäger

STRATO Strasse

SÜDPOL Unter den Wolken

TAMPEN M.W. Kurs

TERMIN Flugzeit (Treibstoffvorrat)

TRIOSAGO Truppenansammlung

ÜSKÜB Übungseinsatz

VERDOL Vordere Linie

VIKTOR Verstanden und Bestätigung

VITAMINE Verstanden

WARTESAAL Warteschleife

WILHELMA Widerstandsnest

WOLGA HALLO Wolkenhöhe

ZIRKUS ÜBER... Sammeln über...

ZITRONE Eigenes Schiff

ZWEIMAL ROLF/LISA Kurs 20° nach rechts/links verbessern

FUNK und Y Führung

ACHTEN AUF FALSCHMÜNZE Gegner gibt auf unserer Welle mit Sprechsender

Gegenbefehle

AUTOBAHN Qdm-Peilung

(Der bei Windstille einzuhaltende Kurs zu einer Peilstation)

BLEIBEN SIE AUF BALKON Auf Qmp-Höhe bleiben

(Höhe bei Blindanflug)

ICH ZÄHLE AB Ich zähle zu Ihrer Abstimmung

BÖRSENSCHLUSS Abschalten

EISENBAHN Auf Gemeinschaftswelle schalten

GEHEN SIE INS BÜRO Auf Meß- und Verständigungshöhe gehen

GROSSE FREUDE Messungen vorhanden

KRINGEL Qgh-Anflug

(Frage an Peiler: Kann Ich nach dem Durchstoßverfahren landen?)

KUH MELKEN Auf Eigenpeilung gehen

KUH PASSIV Eigenpeilung unklar (Sichtanzeigegerät)

LASSEN SIE STERNE BLINKE Drücken Sie Prüfknopf FuG 25a

LEINE ZIEHEN Auf Gruppenbefehlswelle gehen

LOKOMOTIVE Auf Y-Messwelle schalten

LUFTWECHSEL Frequenzwechsel

RÜBEZAHL Übergabe von einer Y-Stelle an eine andere

SIE SIND HEISER Schlechte Abstimmung, nachstimmen

STANDARTE Qte-Peilung

(Ruf eines Peilers: Ich peile Sie rechts weisend in ... Grad)

STERN FuG 25a

STIEFMAMA Falsches Rufzeichen

STRASSE DRÜCKEN Jägerbake an

STRASSE UMLEGEN Jägerbake aus

TAUB Kein Empfang

TIEFE TRAUER Keine Messungen vorhanden

TUBA Peilzeichen geben

TUBA DRÜCKEN Zielfunkfeuer einschalten

WEITLING Führung mit FuG 25a

WELLE AKTIV Funkgerät klar

WELLE PASSIV Funkgerät unklar

ZEBRA Mit Fu G 16 ZE ausgerüstet

ZYPRESSE Mit Fu G 16 ZY ausgerüstet

WETTER

ALLES BEIM ALTEN Wetter unverändert

BÜRGERMEISTER Platz-Qfe

(Luftdruck am jeweiligen Flugplatz zur Einstellung des Feinhöhenmessers)

EISBÄR Außentemperatur

KINO LANGWEILIG Sicht schlecht

KINO SCHÖN Sicht gut

KÜCHE GROSS starker Dunst

KÜCHE KLEIN schwacher Dunst

LAUBFROSCH Geben Sie Kurzwetter

MASKERADE Gewitter

POSEIDON Bodenwind

VORHANG Bewölkung

VORHANG 20 23 5-6 Bewölkungsunter- und obergrenze

(Untergrenze 2000m, Obergrenze 2300m, Bedeckungsgrad 5-6/10)

VORHANG WANDERT 6-7 Wechselnde Bewölkung 6-7/10

WINTER IN... Vereisung in... (Höhe in Hektometer)


Abbreviations from RNZAF Book:

AACUAnti-aircraft Co-operation Unit
AC-in-CAir Commander-in-Chief
ACMBAircrew Medical Board
ACSEAAir Command South-East Asia
AEAFAllied Expeditionary Air Force
AFCAir Force Cross
AGSAir Gunnery School
AHQAir Headquarters
AOCAir Officer Commanding
AOC-in-CAir Officer Commanding-in-Chief
ATSAir Training School
BAFOBritish Air Forces of Occupation
BEFBritish Expeditionary Force
BelBelgium
BEMBritish Empire Medal
BOACBritish Overseas Airways Corporation
BraBrazil
BRBomber Reconnaissance
CASChief of Air Staff
CBCompanion of the Bath
CBECommander Order of the British Empire
CFIChief Flying Instructor
CGIChief Ground Instructor
CGMConspicuous Gallantry Medal
CIChief Instructor
CMBCentral Medical Board
CMECentral Medical Establishment
CMGCompanion of St. Michael and St. George
CNIChief Navigation Instructor
COCommanding Officer
CTOChief Technical Officer
DCASDeputy Chief of Air Staff
DDIDeputy Director of Intelligence
DD of PlansDeputy Director of Plans
DFCDistinguished Flying Cross
DFMDistinguished Flying Medal
DFTDirector of Flying Training
DGEDirectorate General Equipment
DGMSDirectorate General Medical Services
DG of PDirectorate General of PersonnelPAGE 393
D of AADirector of Air Armament
D of ATDirectorate of Air Tactics
D of OpsDirector of Operations
D of PDirector of Personnel
D of PolicyDirectorate of Policy
DPMODeputy Principal Medical Officer
DSOCompanion of the Distinguished Service Order
EFTSElementary Flying Training School
EgEgypt
EthEthiopia
FPMOFlying Personnel Medical Officer
FTCFlying Training Command
FTSFlying Training School
FrFrance
GCBKnight Grand Cross of the Bath
GCIEKnight Grand Commander of the Indian Empire
GCSIKnight Grand Commander of the Star of India
GCVOKnight Grand Cross of Royal Victorian Order
GHQGeneral Headquarters
GMGeorge Medal
GOC-in-CGeneral Officer Commanding-in-Chief
GrGreece
GRGeneral Reconnaissance
HoiHolland
ItItaly
KBEKnight Commander Order of the British Empire
KCBKnight Commander of the Bath
KGKnight of the Order of the Garter
MAAFMediterranean Allied Air Forces
MAPMinistry of Aircraft Production
MBEMember of the Order of the British Empire
MCMilitary Cross
Med MEMediterranean and Middle East
MMMilitary Medal
MOMedical Officer
MVOMember of the Royal Victorian Order
NorNorway
NWAAFNorth-West Africa Air Force
NZPAFNew Zealand Permanent Air Force
OBEOfficer Order of the British Empire
OCOfficer Commanding
OMOrder of Merit
OTUOperational Training Unit
PolPoland
PRCPersonnel Reception CentrePAGE 394
RAAFRoyal Australian Air Force
RCAFRoyal Canadian Air Force
RFCRoyal Flying Corps
RNASRoyal Naval Air Service
RNRRoyal Naval Reserve
RNZAFRoyal New Zealand Air Force
RusRussia
SAAFSouth African Air Force
SASOSenior Air Staff Officer
SEACSouth-East Asia Command
SEAACSouth-East Asia Air Command
SFTSService Flying Training School
SHAEFSupreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force
SMECSpecial Medical Examination Centre
SMOSenior Medical Officer
TAPTactical Air Force
USAAFUnited States Army Air Force


At the going down of the sun, and in the morning we will remember them. - Laurence Binyon

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