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Archive Report: Allied Forces

Compiled from official National Archive and Service sources, contemporary press reports, personal logbooks, diaries and correspondence, reference books, other sources, and interviews.
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514 Squadron Crest
22/23.03.1944 514 Squadron Lancaster II LL684 JI-B2 Flt.Sgt. J.B. Underwood

Operation: Frankfurt

Date: 22/23rd March 1944 (Wednesday/Thursday)

Unit: 514 Squadron

Type: Lancaster II

Serial: LL684

Code: JI-B2

Base: RAF Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire

Location: Nieuw Dordrecht, Holland

Pilot: Flt.Sgt. John Bernard Underwood 1454510 RAFVR Age 21. Killed

Flt.Eng: Sgt. Albert William Johnson 1607088 RAFVR Age 20. Killed

Nav: Fg.Off. Ivor John Frederick Rich 136818 RAFVR Age 35. Killed

Air/Bmr: Fg.Off. Wyman Douglas McPhee J/24235 RCAF PoW No: 3831 Camp: Stalag Luft Barth Vogelsang (L1)

W/Op/Air/Gnr: Sgt. Richard Jock Day 1238225 RAFVR Age 22. Killed

Air/Gnr (mid upper): Sgt. R.C. Sime R/104854 RCAF PoW No: 3841 Camp: Stalag Luft Barth Vogelsang (L1)

Air/Gnr (rear): Sgt. Howell John 1656081 RAFVR Age ? Killed


Took off at 18:26 hrs from RAF Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire to attack Frankfurt (The third attack on this City in a week).

Part of a huge force of 816 aircraft, made up from 620 Lancasters, 184 Halifaxes, 12 Mosquitos. To create confusion an indirect route was employed, crossing the Dutch coast north of the Zuider Zee, then flying due south to Frankfurt.

The city suffered another heavy blow with half of the city left without gas, water and electricity for what is described as a "long period". In this raid 948 people were killed on the ground, 346 seriously injured and 120,000 people were without homes.

Above and below Fg.Off. Ivor John Frederick Rich with his wife, Peg and family. (courtesy Madeleine Bonicel)

One of the results of these heavy raids was that recently captured RAF crews often had to be protected by their guards from the assaults of angry civilians when they passed through Frankfurt to reach the nearby Oberursel Interrogation and transit camp.

The raid cost the allies dear with 35 aircraft lost, resulting in 184 aircrew killed, a further 53 being made PoW.

Oblt. Heinz Rökker of 2./NJG2 claimed LL684 SE of Emmen at a height of 4000 m. at 2130 hrs (local). This was his 15th victory. (Nachtjagd War Diaries Volume 1 - Dr. Theo E.W. Boitem)

Burial details:

Flt.Sgt. John Bernard Underwood. Emmen (Nieuw Dordrecht) General Cemetery. Plot 9. Row B. Grave 25. Son of Percy Bernard and Alice Underwood, of Leeds, Yorkshire, England.

Sgt. Albert William Johnson. Emmen (Nieuw Dordrecht) General Cemetery. Plot 9. Row B. Joint Grave 24. Son of Albert Edward and Eveline Nellie Johnson, of Sandhurst, Berkshire, England.

Fg.Off. Ivor John Frederick Rich. Emmen (Nieuw Dordrecht) General Cemetery. Plot 9. Row B. Grave 23. Son of George Edwin and Rosina Minnie Rich, husband of Edith Peggy Rich, of Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex, England. B.A. (Lond.) King's College.

Sgt. Richard Jock Day. Emmen (Nieuw Dordrecht) General Cemetery. Plot 9. Row B. Grave 22. Son of Ernest William and Lily Frances Day, of Goodrington, Devon, England.

Sgt. Howell John. Emmen (Nieuw Dordrecht) General Cemetery. Plot 9. Row B. Joint Grave 24. Son of David Hopkin John and Margaret John, of Swansea, husband of Sarah Ann John, of Gendros, Swansea, Wales.

Researched for Madeleine Bonicel (relative of Fg.Off. Rich) and for all relatives of the crew. Thanks to Mariusz Łożyński for providing the Christian names for Fg.Off. McPhee. Sources as quoted below.

RS 06.11.2019 - Update for Fg.Off. McPhee and night fighter claim details.

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Sources used by us in compiling Archive Reports include: Bill Chorley - 'Bomber Command Losses Vols. 1-9, plus ongoing revisions', Dr. Theo E.W. Boiten and Mr. Roderick J. Mackenzie - 'Nightfighter War Diaries Vols. 1 and 2', Martin Middlebrook and Chris Everitt - 'Bomber Command War Diaries', Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Tom Kracker - Kracker Luftwaffe Archives, Michel Beckers, Major Fred Paradie (RCAF) and MWO François Dutil (RCAF) - Paradie Archive (on this site), Jean Schadskaje, Major Jack O'Connor USAF (Retd.), Robert Gretzyngier, Wojtek Matusiak, Waldemar Wójcik and Józef Zieliński - 'Ku Czci Połeglyçh Lotnikow 1939-1945', Archiwum - Polish Air Force Archive (on this site), Anna Krzystek, Tadeusz Krzystek - 'Polskie Siły Powietrzne w Wielkiej Brytanii', Franek Grabowski, Norman L.R. Franks 'Fighter Command Losses', Aircrew Remembered Databases and our own archives. We are grateful for the support and encouragement of CWGC, UK Imperial War Museum, Australian War Memorial, Australian National Archives, New Zealand National Archives, UK National Archives and Fold3 and countless dedicated friends and researchers across the world.
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